Contractors for Highways England will be undertaking essential resurfacing work between the A616 Flouch Roundabout and the A57 Gun Inn junction from Monday 12 September.
The 14 mile stretch of the A628 will be closed overnight between 8pm and 6am Monday night into Friday morning to allow the work to take place.
There will then be temporary traffic lights from Friday morning until Sunday evening.
As part of the scheme reflective road studs will be replaced and road markings will be repainted.
Highways England project manager Martin Barnes said:
This project will provide drivers with safer and smoother journeys along this stretch of the A628.
Every effort is being made to ensure disruption to traffic and residents is kept to a minimum. We are carrying out this work overnight while traffic levels are at their lowest.
Clearly signed diversions will be in place while the work takes place.
Eastbound traffic will be diverted off the A628 at the Gun Inn junction onto the A57 to Sheffield. Westbound traffic will be advised of the closure on the M1 and diverted north via the M1, M62 and M60.
The work is expected to be completed by Sunday 16 October, depending on reasonable weather conditions.
Members of the public should contact the Highways England customer contact centre on 0300 123 5000.
Journalists should contact the Highways England press office on 0844 693 1448 and use the menu to speak to the most appropriate press officer.