Health protection – collection

Electromagnetic fields

Advice on exposure to electromagnetic fields in the everyday environment, including electrical appliances in the home and mobile phones.

These documents cover:

  • static fields used in various industries
  • medical devices such as magnetic resonance imaging
  • low frequency electric and magnetic fields that arise from the generation, transport and use of electricity
  • radio waves used to broadcast radio and TV and by telecommunication equipment such as mobile phones and base stations
  • quantities and units used to measure exposure to electromagnetic fields
  • exposure guidelines

Static fields

Static electric and magnetic fields include the natural fields that occur in the atmosphere and the man-made fields produced by direct current electricity and magnetic resonance scanners.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): protecting patients

    • Guidance
  2. Static magnetic fields: evidence summary

    • Research and analysis

Low frequency electric and magnetic fields

Electric and magnetic fields are produced by the generation and use of electricity.

  1. Electric and magnetic fields: health effects of exposure

    • Guidance
  2. Electric and magnetic fields: sources and exposure

    • Guidance
  3. Power frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs): melatonin and risk of breast cancer

    • Research and analysis
  4. Electric and magnetic fields: reducing exposure

    • Guidance

Radio waves

Sources of radio waves in homes and offices include mobile phones, wi-fi, smart meters. Other sources of radio waves include TV and radio transmissions, radar and satellite communications, which use radio waves to operate.

Radio waves belong to the category of non-ionising radiation (NIR). This is the term given to the part of the electromagnetic spectrum where there’s insufficient quantum energy to cause ionisations in living matter.

  1. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: health effects

    • Research and analysis
  2. Mobile phone base stations: radio waves and health

    • Guidance
  3. Wireless networks (wi-fi): radio waves and health

    • Guidance
  4. Smart meters: radio waves and health

    • Guidance
  5. Radio waves: reducing exposure

    • Guidance