Affected market: Grocery retailing
The OFT's decision on reference under section 33 given on 28 May 2004
Waitrose Limited (Waitrose) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of John Lewis
Partnership plc and operates a range of grocery stores. Wm Morrison
Supermarkets plc (Morrison) is a large grocery retailer, which also
operates a wide variety of grocery stores.
On 8 March 2004, Morrison acquired Safeway plc by way of a scheme of
arrangement. Under the terms of the undertakings given by Morrison on 8
December 2003 to the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry (the
Undertakings), Morrison must divest a number of grocery stores (to
address local competition concerns identified by the Competition
Commission (CC) in its report on the proposed acquisition of Safeway
(the CC Report) ([see note 1]). Waitrose proposes to acquire
19 stores from Morrison (the acquired stores), 14 of which must be
divested by Morrison under the terms of the Undertakings.
Before announcing its decision on this transaction under the Enterprise
Act 2002 (the Act), the OFT had to be satisfied that the terms of the
Undertakings had been met. The OFT was able to conclude that the terms
had been met on 28 May 2004.
The turnover attributable to the acquired stores for the respective last
financial years is [greater than £70m] [[see note 4]] ([see
note 2]). The administrative deadline was 26 May 2004.
As a result of this transaction Waitrose and the acquired stores will
cease to be distinct. The UK turnover attributable to the acquired
stores exceeds £70 million, so the turnover test in section 23(1)(b) of
the Act is satisfied. A relevant merger situation will be created.
The CC concluded in the CC Report that one-stop shopping in grocery
stores of 1,400 square metres and above (large stores) constituted a
relevant frame of reference for the purposes of their inquiries.
Typically in a local area, only large stores cater for one-stop
shopping, and thus are not generally constrained effectively by smaller
grocery stores for customers of this type of shopping, as such stores do
not stock a sufficiently wide product range to fulfil customers' needs
for a weekly grocery shop. Each acquired store clearly falls within the
definition of one-stop grocery store as used in the CC Report. The
product frame of reference for this case is therefore one-stop grocery
shopping as defined by the CC.
The CC concluded that the geographic frame of reference was essentially
local because of the limited distance that most customers were willing
to travel for their regular shopping trip. However, the CC did
recognise that there were national aspects to competition which should
also be considered, as many important decisions (such as pricing and
advertising) ([see note 3]) were taken at national level and
implemented locally. We therefore analysed competition both nationally
and locally (using the CC's isochrone methodology for the latter).
Waitrose's share of national one-stop shopping would increase from 2.8
per cent to [2.8-3.8] per cent ([see note 4]) as a result of
the merger. No national concerns therefore arise as a result of this
The isochrone analysis provided by parties points to the conclusion that
this merger does not raise local competition concerns, as analysed in
the CC Report, as in no local area will the number of competing fascias
be reduced to three or less. No third party concerns were received in
relation to this acquisition. No local concerns therefore arise as a
result of this merger.
Barriers to entry and expansion
The CC Report sets out that barriers to entry and expansion are high for
large stores. We have not received any evidence which would warrant
departing from this conclusion.
As customers are usually individuals, countervailing buyer power is not
an issue in relation to this acquisition.
Waitrose's share of national grocery purchases from suppliers would
increase from [less than 5] per cent ([see note 4]) to [less
than 5] per cent ([see note 4]) as a result of the merger. No
vertical issues are, therefore, raised by this transaction.
THIRD PARTY VIEWS
Third parties broadly welcomed the merger.
This merger raised no horizontal competition concerns at either national
or local level. Furthermore, no vertical competition concerns are
raised. Consequently, the OFT does not believe that it is or may be the
case that the merger may be expected to result in a substantial
lessening of competition within a market or markets in the United
This merger will therefore not be referred to the CC under section 33(1)
of the Act.
For the former Safeway stores, the year ended 31 March 2003; for the
former Morrison store, the year ended 31 January 2004.
Figures replaced by a range at the request of the parties