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The Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) was notified of the accident by Aeronautical Rescue Co-ordination Centre (ARCC) Kinloss at 1326 hrs on 1 April 2009 and the investigation began the same day. In accordance with established international arrangements the Bureau d’Enquetes et d’Analyses Pour la Securité de l’Aviation Civile (BEA), representing the State of Manufacture of the helicopter, and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the Regulator responsible for the certification and continued airworthiness of the helicopter, were informed of the accident. The BEA appointed an Accredited Representative to lead a team of investigators from the BEA, Eurocopter (the helicopter manufacturer) and Turbomeca (the engine manufacturer). The EASA, the helicopter operator and the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) also provided assistance to the AAIB team.
The accident occurred whilst the helicopter was operating a scheduled passenger flight from the Miller Platform in the North Sea, to Aberdeen. Whilst cruising at 2,000 ft amsl, and some 50 minutes into the flight, there was a catastrophic failure of the helicopter’s Main Rotor Gearbox (MGB). The helicopter departed from cruise flight and shortly after this the main rotor and part of the epicyclic module separated from the fuselage. The helicopter then struck the surface of the sea with a high vertical speed.
An extensive and complex investigation revealed that the failure of the MGB initiated in one of the eight second stage planet gears in the epicyclic module. The planet gear had fractured as a result of a fatigue crack, the precise origin of which could not be determined. However, analysis indicated that this is likely to have occurred in the loaded area of the planet gear bearing outer race.
A metallic particle had been discovered on the epicyclic chip detector during maintenance on 25 March 2009, some 36 flying hours prior to the accident. This was the only indication of the impending failure of the second stage planet gear. The lack of damage on the recovered areas of the bearing outer race indicated that the initiation was not entirely consistent with the understood characteristics of spalling (see 18.104.22.168). The possibility of a material defect in the planet gear or damage due to the presence of foreign object debris could not be discounted.
The investigation identified the following causal factor:
- The catastrophic failure of the Main Rotor Gearbox was a result of a fatigue fracture of a second stage planet gear in the epicyclic module.
In addition the investigation identified the following contributory factors:
The actions taken following the discovery of a magnetic particle on the epicyclic module chip detector on 25 March 2009, 36 flying hours prior to the accident, resulted in the particle not being recognised as an indication of degradation of the second stage planet gear, which subsequently failed.
After 25 March 2009, the existing detection methods did not provide any further indication of the degradation of the second stage planet gear.
The ring of magnets installed on the AS332 L2 and EC225 main rotor gearboxes reduced the probability of detecting released debris from the epicyclic module. Seventeen Safety Recommendations are made.