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HMRC internal manual

VAT Business/Non-Business Manual

VAT registration scheme for racehorse owners: glossary of horse racing terms

ABR Annual Breeding Right. An ABR allows the holder to nominate a mare annually to be covered by a stallion. An ABR does not enjoy the same benefits as a share. It cannot be sold or transferred.
BHA British Horseracing Authority. The governing authority of racing in the UK.
Breeder Owner of dam at the time foal is born.
Broodmare Thoroughbred mare used for breeding.
Claiming Race Any horse within the race may be claimed at the racecourse or by contacting Weatherby’s immediately after the race. The minimum price for which the horse may be claimed determines how much weight it carries in the race, with more valuable horses carrying heavier weights.
Classics Five high value, high prestige races open to three-year-olds only. The races are the 1,000 Guineas and 2,000 Guineas (run at Newmarket), the Derby and the Oaks (run at Epsom) and the St Leger (run at Doncaster). None of these races is open to geldings. Colts may not compete in the 1,000 Guineas or the Oaks.
Conditions Race Race in which different weights are allocated to the horses, dependent on their age, sex and previous successes.
Colt Male thoroughbred up to and including 4 years of age.
CoP Cost of production.
Covering Impregnation of mare by stallion.
Dam Mother of a thoroughbred.
Entire An uncastrated male horse.
Filly Female thoroughbred up to and including 4 years of age.
Foal  Thoroughbred aged less than 12 months.
Foaling Date The actual date on which a thoroughbred is born.
Gelding Castrated male thoroughbred.
Goffs Firm that organises bloodstock sales, based in County Kildare, Republic of Ireland.
Graded Races Major National Hunt races. Typically conditions races which often attract runners from Ireland and France as well as the UK. Also includes the major National Hunt handicap races such as the Grand National - these typically hold Grade 3 status. Horses are typically entered into these races to gain prestige as most competitors are geldings and therefore have no stud value. A separate system of grading races exists for flat racing (see Pattern Races).
Handicap Race in which different weights are carried by the horses on the basis of their past performances.
Horse  An uncastrated male thoroughbred, aged 5 and upwards.
Hunter chaser A National Hunt horse which has qualified to run in races referred to as Hunter Chases. The horse must be ‘fairly and regularly hunted’ (by taking part in recognised hunts) to qualify.
Jockey Club Relinquished authority to the BHA in 1993. Still referred to as the licensing and policing body of the sport even though most of its functions are now run by the BHA.
Juvenile A two year old racehorse in flat racing. A three year old racehorse in National Hunt racing (becomes four on 1 January but remains a juvenile until 30 April)
Maiden Horse of either sex that has never won a race. A horse loses its maiden status immediately it wins a race (unlike novices, who retain that status for the remainder of that season).
MoU Memorandum of Understanding.
National Hunt Races run under the rules of the National Hunt Committee, typically over hurdles or fences but also including National Hunt flat races (also known as ‘bumper’ races).
Nomination The right to nominate a mare to be covered by a stallion in one breeding session.
Novice chaser A horse that has not won a steeplechase before the start of the current season. A horse remains a novice chaser until the end of the season in which it first wins a steeplechase. It is therefore possible, if a horse does not win in its first season, for it to become a ‘second season novice chaser’.
Novice hurdler A horse that has not won a hurdle race before the start of the current season. A horse remains a novice hurdler until the end of the season in which it first wins a hurdle race. It is therefore possible, if a horse does not win in its first season, for it to become a ‘second season novice hurdler’.
Novice Race A race confined to novices.
Nursery Handicap race on the flat confined to two year olds.
Pattern Races Major flat races of international (Group 1 and 2) or domestic (Group 3 and Listed) importance, success in which will usually increase the stud value of a racehorse. A separate pattern exists for National Hunt racing (see Graded Races).
Permit Holder A trainer who may train horses for National Hunt racing that are owned by himself, spouse, parents, sons or daughters.
Rig  Horse with only one descended testicle.
Rules of Racing The rules governing horseracing which are maintained by the BHA as The Orders and Rules of Racing.
The Scheme An agreement reached between the Department and the Bloodstock Industry, under which racehorse owners may be registered for VAT.
Share in stallion Ownership of a stallion may be divided into 40 shares; each share entities the owner to one nomination per breeding session.
Sire Father of a thoroughbred.
Sponsorship Framework Code of conduct issued by the BHA for racehorse owners
for Racehorse Owners(SFRO) seeking sponsorship
Stallion Male horse kept at stud.
Stallion Syndicate The owners of the 40 shares in a stallion. A committee is usually set up to manage the stallion (these should not be confused with racing syndicate).
Selling Plate Race in which the winner is auctioned immediately afterwards and in which any runner can be bought for the price advertised in the conditions of the race.
Steeplechase  National Hunt races over fences rather than hurdles.
Tattersalls Firm that organises bloodstock sales, based in Newmarket.
TBA Thoroughbred Breeding Association.
Thoroughbred Horse registered with Weatherbys in the General Book, whose antecedents can be traced back to the 18th century.
TTT  Transfer to training.
Weatherbys Secretarial authority to the BHA based at Wellingborough, Northants, which holds details and accounts of all horses in training.
Yearling Thoroughbred between first New Years Day after its birthday and the following 1 January (twelve months to two years). All racehorses are deemed to have their ‘birthday’ on 1 January, whatever their foaling date.