USA: Double taxation agreement, Article 7: Business profits
- The business profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the business profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as are attributable to that permanent establishment.
- Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 of this Article, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the business profits that it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment. For this purpose, the business profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall include only the profits derived from the assets used, risks assumed and activities performed by the permanent establishment.
- In determining the business profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses that are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.
- For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
- The United States excise tax on insurance policies issued by foreign insurers shall not be imposed on insurance or reinsurance policies, the premiums on which are the receipts of a business of insurance carried on by an enterprise of the United Kingdom. However, if such policies are entered into as part of a conduit arrangement, the United States may impose excise tax on those policies, unless the premiums in respect of those policies are, or are part of, the income of a permanent establishment that the enterprise of the United Kingdom has in the United States.
- Where business profits include items of income that are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.
- In applying this Article, paragraph 5 of Article 10 (Dividends), paragraph 3 of Article 11 (Interest), paragraph 3 of Article 12 (Royalties), and paragraph 2 of Article 22 (Other Income) of this Convention, income or profits attributable to a permanent establishment may, notwithstanding that the permanent establishment has ceased to exist, be taxed in the Contracting State in which it was situated.
Further clarification of the Article is provided by the following:
With reference to Article 7 (Business Profits):
it is understood that the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines will apply, by analogy, for the purposes of determining the profits attributable to a permanent establishment. Accordingly, any of the methods described therein - including profits methods - may be used to determine the income of a permanent establishment so long as those methods are applied in accordance with the Guidelines. In particular, in determining the amount of attributable profits, the permanent establishment shall be treated as having the same amount of capital that it would need to support its activities if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities. With respect to financial institutions other than insurance companies, a Contracting State may determine the amount of capital to be attributed to a permanent establishment by allocating the institution’s total equity between its various offices on the basis of the proportion of the financial institution’s risk-weighted assets attributable to each of them.