USA: double taxation agreement, Article 5: Permanent Establishment
Replaced by new DTA, which applies in UK from 1st April 2003 for CT, 6th April 2003 for IT and 1st January 2004 for PRT. For US withholding taxes it applies from 1st May 2003 and for other US taxes from 1st January 2004. See DT19934.
(1) For the purposes of this Convention, the term `permanent establishment` means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
(2) The term `permanent establishment` shall include especially:
(a) a branch;
(b) an office;
(c) a factory;
(d) a workshop;
(e) a mine, oil or gas well, quarry, or other place of extraction of natural resources; and
(f) a building or construction or installation project which exists for more than 12 months.
(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, the term `permanent establishment` shall be deemed not to include a fixed place of business used solely for one or more of the following activities:
(a) the storage, display, or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise for the purpose of processing by another person
(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or for collecting information, for the enterprise;
(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business for the purpose of advertising for the supply of information, for scientific research, or for similar activities which have a preparatory or auxiliary character, for the enterprise; or
(f) a building or construction or installation project which does not exist for more than 12 months.
(4) A person acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State–other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph (5) applies–shall be deemed to be a permanent establishment of the enterprise in the first-mentioned State if such person has, and habitually exercises in that State, an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise unless the contracts are confined to the activities described in paragraph (3) of this Article.
(5) An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of independent status, where such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.
(6) The fact that a corporation which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a corporation which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either corporation a permanent establishment of the other.