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HMRC internal manual

Double Taxation Relief Manual

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HM Revenue & Customs
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Switzerland: double taxation agreement, Article 4: Residence

(1) For the purposes of this Convention, the term `resident of a Contracting State` means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature. But this term does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State. In the case of Switzerland, the term includes a partnership created or organised under Swiss law.

(2) Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph (1) an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:

(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);

(b) if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has an habitual abode;

(c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State of which he is a national;

(d) if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

(3) Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph (1) a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which its place of effective management is situated. In cases of doubt, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to determine by mutual agreement the State in which the person’s place of effective management is exercised, and in doing so shall take into account all relevant factors. In the absence of such agreement, that person shall not be entitled too claim any benefits provided by this Convention except those provided by paragraph (1) of Article 22 (Elimination of double taxation), Article 23 (Non-discrimination) and Article 24 (Mutual agreement procedure).