DT: Kazakhstan: double taxation agreement, Article 27: Exchange of information
- The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Convention, in particular, to prevent fraud and to facilitate the administration of statutory provisions against legal avoidance. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by this Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
- In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article be construed so as to impose on the competent authority of either Contracting State the obligation:
(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice prevailing in either Contracting State;
(b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of either Contracting State;
(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.