Rating Manual section 6 part 3: valuation of all property classes

Section 382: factory outlet villages

This publication is intended for Valuation Officers. It may contain links to internal resources that are not available through this version.

1. Scope

1.1 This instruction applies to Factory Outlet Villages (FOVs). A Factory outlet village is a destination out of town retail development. Each village typically, but not exclusively, comprises over 40 units let predominantly as manufacturers’ outlets and may also include restaurants, a food court and ancillary accommodation including a management suite, public toilets, children’s play area, car parking and coach parking. Such centres allow manufacturers and retailers to dispose of surplus and obsolete stock. The unit leases usually contain a condition that goods must be sold at a certain percentage below the recommended retail price.

1.2 Address details of Factory Outlet Villages sites for class co-ordination purposes are shown at Appendix 1 of the Practice Note.

2. List description and special category code

Bulk Class: Shop

List Descriptions: Shop and Premises;

Restaurant and Premises;

Cafe and Premises;

Food Court and Premises

Kiosk and Premises.

Scale: VVSGPOVERAL1

Primary Description: CS (Shop and Premises);

CR (Restaurant and Premises);

CR1(Cafe and Premises);

CR2 (Food Court and Premises) and

CS4 (Kiosk and Premises)

SCAT CODE 097 (Factory shops)

Suffix G (Generalist)

3. Responsible Teams

3.1 Generalist caseworkers are responsible for the survey and valuation of this class.

3.2 It is anticipated that each Unit will have a named individual responsible for the class. More than one named individual is recommended for succession planning.

3.3 It is also recommended that each Unit should allocate a named co-ordinator, or Lead Valuer, to act as a point of contact within the Unit. The Lead Valuer will be responsible for assisting in the delivery of the Unit’s valuation scheme and also for liaising on value and technical issues with other Lead Valuers across adjoining Units. The Lead Valuer will be responsible for ensuring compliance with this section.

4. Co-ordination

4.1 The Factory Outlet Villages Class Co-ordination Team (CCT) has overall responsibility for the co-ordination of this class. You can find contact details here Valuation Panel & Class Co-ordination Team Members. The team are responsible for the approach to and the accuracy and consistency of Factory Outlet Villages valuations.

4.2 The Practice Note describes the valuation basis for revaluation and the CCT will provide advice as necessary during the life of the rating lists.

4.3 Caseworkers have a responsibility to:

  • follow the advice given at all times - Practice Notes are mandatory

  • not depart from the guidance given on appeals or maintenance work, without approval from the co-ordination team.

There is no specific legal framework for this class.

6. Survey Requirements

6.1 Inspections should be carried out in accordance with the Valuation Office Agency Code of Practice. Arrangements for inspecting properties (Non-Domestic Rating)

6.2 Shops in Factory Outlet Villages should be measured to Gross Internal Area (GIA) for rating purposes in accordance with the RICS Code of Measuring Practice 6th edition or its replacement. This is how units are let in the open market and therefore the only method to be adopted. Gross Internal Area (GIA) - Measurement definitions - isurv

6.3 Consistency of approach is essential and surveys must be carried out in accordance with the guidance in section 3 of Rating manual: section 6 part 5 section 920: Shops and Shopping Centres

6.4 Inspection

An inspection checklist is appended to (Appendix 1) and should be completed for all new properties and updated for maintenance work and stored in the property folder of the Electronic Document Records Management (EDRM) system.

6.5 The Survey Template can be found in EDRM. This will need to be completed following inspection.

6.6 Plant & Machinery

Adequate information regarding all items of Plant & Machinery should be carefully recorded, including those frequently found, such as type of air conditioning, heating, fire protection, security camera systems, lifts etc. Details will be required not only to assess their effect on value, but also in the event of particulars being sought by the ratepayers or their agents under the relevant statutory provisions. Reference should also be made to RM4: 3 and the VOA Rating Cost Guide.

6.7 Heating and air conditioning - The extent and effectiveness of heating and air-conditioning systems will vary significantly according to the type of system installed, the range of facilities offered, their performance, and the degrees of environmental control.

A basic air conditioning system usually incorporates facilities for heating, cooling and ventilating. More complex systems also control humidity, monitor the through-flow of air, filter, purify and deodorise the re-circulated air, and offer localised control in different parts of the premises or parts of a floor.

6.8 Fire protection and security systems - These may cover the whole outlet village and/or individual unit systems. They should be clearly identified and recorded.

7. Valuation Considerations

7.1 Background

In order to maximise the return of the individual retailers it is in the Landlords’ interest to keep tight control over the tenant mix, management and promotion of the centre as a whole. This enables traders to complement rather than compete to the benefit of all. Rents under turnover leases are more directly related to an occupiers ability to trade. Turnover and profit margins will vary and so will the level of rent a tenant is able to pay. Adoption of turnover leases therefore gives the landlord more flexibility to ensure the optimum tenant mix, a range of complementary traders to maximise the centre turnover and therefore the rental income as a whole. Generally speaking the valuation approach reflects these circumstances by deriving a standard unit price applicable to all standard units (see paragraph 7.3) .

7.2 Rental Basis

This class is valued by reference to turnover rents. Turnover Rents are comprehensively dealt with in the rental adjustment practice notes in the Rating Manual ( Valuation methods ) The Practice Note for the appropriate list year should be read and understood by anyone dealing with this class of property. It should be remembered that all Turnover information is confidential and should not be disclosed to third parties. Data provided centrally by owner/landlords for all units on their sites is to be treated accordingly. A bespoke ‘turnover rent’ Form of Return VO6066 is also available for individual units to issue, which will be similarly treated. Contracting out of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954 may be normal practice.

7.3 The standard unit

Analysis of the lease agreements for these sites indicates that the individual tenants’ turnover is the significant factor in determining the rent agreement and as such the individual unit position within the site is not a value significant element.

The majority of units within a site fall within a standard range of sizes and the rental data provided by these units is analysed to determine the standard unit price applicable for the site. Typically the standard unit range is from 50-500m² but the units at the site will determine the size range for that locality. Units not considered standard for example large units, kiosks and food courts are considered separately.

7.4 The standard unit value (per m²)

The standard unit price per m² must fairly reflect the maintainable level of value evidenced for the standard units on the site. Traditional analysis of total rent paid is therefore inappropriate for turnover rents, or rents comprising a turnover element as these are directly related to the ability to trade of individual occupiers, for which turnover and profit margins vary.

To ensure analysis derives a value which is most representative of the rental level to be expected under the hypothetical tenancy, the two rental elements which make up the standard unit rent are considered separately.

The base rent element, is that level of rent which is guaranteed. This will normally be a price per square metre, which is usually consistent across a development. This element of rent will often be paid quarterly in advance, as in the case of traditional leases.

The turnover rent, is that element of rent which is variable. This is subject to achievement of pre-agreed turnover levels being exceeded.

7.5 Analysis of standard unit rental data

Individual analysis will generally depend on the standard lease details pertinent to the site and the specific detail of the gearing of the base/turnover elements.

To reduce the number of subjective assumptions made to derive the standard unit price, it is recommended that caseworkers make a median analysis of the two separate rental incomes, base and turnover, for all standard units paying full years rent at AVD.

A median analysis of the two income streams, base & turnover is both simple and transparent and produces values representative of the mainstream market for the units on the site. Using the median on the entire data set, rather than measuring the average having omitted some outliers, gives a true measure of the most representative rental level and no further subjective adjustments to either base or turnover element are required.

The Factory Village Adjustment & Analysis Rent Schedule should be used to ensure consistent application of the valuation approach outlined in this guidance.

The basic price of standard units has been derived from a range of units with various advantages and disabilities reflected in the rent, it is not therefore expected that any end allowances will be appropriate.

7.6 Non standard units

Large units, kiosks and food courts are not considered standard units as defined in 7.3 above and therefore the unit price (m²) to be adopted will be derived from analysis of the rental data for the units concerned, comparable units and with reference to the site standard unit price (m²).

7.7 Comparability

In all cases where comparability with another site can be anticipated it will be prudent to make a check valuation on a like for like basis

8 Valuation Considerations

8.1 Fitting Out

If the unit is a new let at base rent in shell condition, and the tenant has undertaken the fit out, then the actual fit out costs should be analysed and an addition made to the rent. In the absence of costs see the Practice Note for guidance. It should be noted that the addition does not include air conditioning. Air conditioning should be treated separately in accordance with the guidance given below. If all units on the site are let in shell condition then the standard unit price derived from the shell rents should be adjusted to reflect the tenants fit out.

8.2 Air conditioning

Where the unit demise includes air conditioning the value is considered reflected in the rent. If air conditioning is evidenced as the norm for the site its value will be considered reflected in the standard unit price adopted. In this situation units outside the norm i.e. without air conditioning will require an allowance to reflect its absence.

If air conditioning is not the norm, the standard unit price will reflect this and an addition will be required to those units where air conditioning has been installed but not reflected in the rent. Where a unit excluding air conditioning is demised and air conditioning is installed as a tenants improvement then it should be valued in accordance with Rating manual: section 6 part 5 section 920 : Shops and Shopping Centres : Practice Note 1 : 2010 : Revaluation 2010 : Air Conditioning in Shops and the area served by the air conditioning data captured as an ‘other addition’.

8.3 Fire protection and security systems

As for air conditioning above, if these items are tenants’ improvements which are not reflected in the rent deriving the standard unit price, they should be valued in accordance with the guidance given in Rating Manual section 4 part 1 Rental Adjustments PN 1 (currently being revised) Part 14 tenants’ improvement and Rating Manual section 6 part 5 Plant Machinery and the VOA Rating Cost Guide

8.4 Customer car parking

Adequate provision of customer car parking is an essential feature of factory outlet sites, both on grounds of planning and store operator requirements. In cases where the car parking forms part of the main retail site, its presence can be said to be reflected in the value of the units.

However, if the car parking area forms a separate hereditament from the retail site, in the rateable occupation of the site operator, some other person, company or public body, then it should be valued at a level appropriate to the locality.

Guidance notes on the rating of retail centre car parks can be found in Rating Manual: section 6 part 3 - Section 200 : Car Parks : Practice Note 1 : 2010

8.5 Tenant added first floors

When considering evidence in arriving at values to be placed on any tenant added first floor space, it is important to follow the guidance found in 2017 Practice note for rental adjustment Part 14: Improvements. Any values resulting from analysis of tenant added first floors should be recorded in RSA as an other addition: SFF (First Floor Sales) or RSF (First Floor Stores - Retail)

8.6 Automatic Teller Machines

For advice see Rating Manual - section 6 part 3 - Section 1120: Sites of Automatic Machines

8.7 Kiosks and Retail Merchandising Units (RMU’s)

Location within the centre and footfall are the major factors determining value. There is usually sufficient rental evidence and the approach is either a spot figure or on a £/m² basis where devaluation of the evidence results in a consistent ‘tone’.

8.8 Concessions

Where all the ingredients of separate rateable occupation are apparent then the hereditament so identified should be separately assessed. It will be a matter of local judgement as to the appropriate level of value. The best evidence is likely to be derived from the payments made for the concessions themselves.

8.9 Residual Mall Assessment

The residual mall assessment remains in the control of the landlord and comprises short term, seasonal, temporary stalls and other income generating features such as vending machines; children’s rides, Father Christmas grotto, and similar.

8.10 Stairs, lifts and escalators

By improving access to an upper floor the tenant is seeking to enable a better and more valuable use of this floor.

8.11 Mode and Category of Occupation

The hereditament must be valued vacant and to let for a use within the same mode or category of occupation as the actual use - for example a restaurant must be valued “vacant and to let” as a restaurant. The measure of value is, therefore, what the market would pay to occupy the hereditament in its existing physical state, and for a use within the same mode or category as the actual use. Rating Manual section 6 part 10 Appendix 1

8.12 Key Rents

All properties where a key rent has been identified must be inspected. R2017 Key Rent Inspections

9. Valuation Support

  • Rating Support Application (RSA)

  • Survaid

  • Class Coordination team for Factory Outlet Villages

Appendix 1

Factory Outlet VIllage Inspection Checklist.

Factory Outlet Villages Inspection Checklist Measure to GIA Overall Inspections should be carried out in accordance with the Valuation Office Agency Code of Practice.
Occupier
Address
Retail type Planning use code: e.g A1; A3
Location identified on Village Map (Scan to EDRM) SCAT Code 097 (All retail units, cafes and restaurants) Valuation Scale: VVSGPOVERAL1
Transport
Car Parking Provision of car parking for the Centre: Good/ Adequate/ Poor Chargeable Yes/No
Competition/ comparables
Building External Built: No. of floors
Construction Walls; Floor Roof
Main display and any secondary display
Outside seating area
Building Internal Refurbished: Fit out:
Disabilities
Accommodation Access from loading
Entrance Standard/ prestige. Front/ side/ rear. Walls
Floors
Ceilings Height
Shape
Extraordinary features
Natural light
Customer WCs Extent and Quality Lifts & Escalators Type manual/automatic, goods, passenger, staff/ customers, capacity, floors served
Other occupiers in the building Shared facilities:
Customer restaurant
Services. Fire Precautions. Security
Air Conditioning (age) Cassette or ducted. Purpose. Extent of area covered. Heating. Fuel. System
Rental information Base rent. Turnover top up; Date of commencement of this level of rent Contact details
Photographs
General remarks
Date of survey Survey by:

##Section 382: Practice Note 1: 2017

1. Market Appraisal

1.1 Factory outlet villages are mainly situated just outside of large cities/towns and offer well-known high end brand manufacturers the opportunity to sell their products to consumers at a significant discount. Unlike conventional stock sales, goods are not sold at the place of production. Instead, factory outlet villages are typified by a number of individual outlet stores in which different brand manufacturers sell discontinued lines, slightly imperfect goods and surplus stock. For retailers, outlet villages have offered an avenue to sell out-of-season stock, while attracting new customers to the brand.

1.2 There are two types of factory outlet centre trading in the UK. One is the conventional mall style with rows of shops facing each other down a mock street. This can be seen at Bicester where developers ‘Value Retail’ have created an upmarket discount shopping village. Likewise at Chester, the partnership between TH Real estate and McArthur Glen have developed an enormous factory shopping complex known as Cheshire Oaks. The other type of centre is a hybrid, combining conventional malls with leisure style shopping aimed at providing a family day out. Typical examples are London Designer Outlet, Wembley and Gloucester Quays, Gloucester.

1.3 Most Factory Outlet Villages in England and Wales have ridden the recession well and many have prospered, with both investment and letting of retail space increasing in recent years. This might be because Factory Outlet retail is considered by its many customers as a leisure experience. There is an appetite for designer goods at a bargain price – even if they are slightly sub-standard.

1.4 There are 28 Factory Outlet Villages in England and Wales (October 2015). There are three main operators, McArthur Glen, Value Retail and Realm. Significantly, 8 sites are managed by Realm. McArthur Glen is the developer and manager of six sites. These include UK and Europe’s first Cheshire Oaks Designer Outlet near Chester; Ashford Designer Outlet; Bridgend Designer Outlet Wales; East Midlands Designer Outlet, Swindon Designer Outlet and York Designer Outlet. Three of these designer outlets, Cheshire Oaks, Bridgend and Swindon, are owned by TIAA Henderson Real Estate (TH Real Estate) but managed by McArthur Glen.

1.5 Not all developers have had due regard to the fundamental factors which determine the success of such developments. This has resulted in a wide variance between the best and worst performing centres. Unlike traditional retail leases the landlord shares the risk with the tenants through the uniform application of turnover rents. This has meant that the best operators have shared in the success of those centres that have exceeded expectations whilst others have shared the problems in those centres that failed to achieve their original plan.

1.6 The UK is Europe’s most mature Factory Outlet Villages market, and its factory outlet centres are an established part of consumer life. A consolidation is occurring within the sector as well as the failure of some centres, which have not performed to the level expected by the developers. Accordingly, the industry is shifting its focus to asset managing existing properties in the UK, and looking overseas for less mature markets in which to develop.

1.7 The focus in the UK is directed at extending and upgrading existing successful schemes. Institutional investors like TH Real Estate are investing in the sector with expansion, redevelopment and improvement of their existing Factory Outlet Villages by moving towards luxury and premium brands. This was evidenced in Cheshire Oaks with the repositioning of retail stores to cater for a better food offer and adding luxury brands to the centre. In Swindon £40 million has been invested to refurbish and extend the centre. The new expanded centre opened in April 2015 and brought with it new premium brand names. Value Retail, who own Bicester Village were granted planning permission in 2014 for an extra 8,218m² extension on the adjacent supermarket site.

1.8 At the same time projects for new sites have been granted planning permission and are springing up across the country, such as Resorts World Outlet adjacent to the NEC in Birmingham. This is a multi-purpose development, featuring a casino, conference centre, four-star hotel, cinema alongside retail, food and beverage units. It is due to open in Autumn 2015.

1.9 Centres are very tightly managed and this coupled with the appeal for fashion has enabled strong growth compared to mainstream retail. The balance between retail and food is a fine one and the centre managers skill in getting the mix right is a major contributor to the success of the centre. This encompasses Retail merchandising units (RMU’s) within the mall itself. Unlike mainstream retailers who can locate in any town and development, outlet centre occupiers have less to choose from because most of the lease agreements contain restrictions on competition in the form of “radius clauses”. These clauses forbid tenants to open up shops in another outlet mall within a certain radius of the centre they are in.

1.10 Of course, location and catchment area is crucial and the towns and cities within it need to be large enough to support turnovers. In 2011 Bicester Village was reported to attract a spend of £1,500/ft² which was 5 times higher than the average UK shopping centre spend. Footfall in 2010 was 4.6 million and 65% of customers are overseas tourists. Bicester Village trades off the London tourist market. Bicester Village is often called the Bond Street of Factory Outlet Villages due to its luxury retail mix and global consumer base. Cheshire Oaks also benefits from a large population in nearby Manchester and Liverpool who enjoy luxury shopping.

1.11 New centres planned:

The owners of the O2 in Greenwich plan to open a designer outlet centre to rival Bicester Village in Oxfordshire. Retailers who sign leases at Bicester are locked into geographical exclusivity deals which stop them opening another discount outlet within a certain distance, but Greenwich falls outside this boundary. They intend to develop a mall of more than 100 discount luxury shops in unused space within the arena. American-owned AEG Europe wants to attract leading fashion houses to the development, in the hope that they will draw more visitors to the concert venue during the daytime. AEG has secured planning permission from Greenwich council for approximately 230,000 sq ft of retail space on the ground floor of the O2 and on an upper level originally built for a casino.

1.12 Further reading may be accessed from the following two links

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/e310b9a2-4895-11e4-9d04 00144feab7de.html#ixzz3nKAG7slW

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/10047083/The-rise-of-designer-outlets-in-the-age-of-austerity.html

2. Changes from the last Practice Note

2.1 Changes to the guidance provided by previous Practice Notes included fitting out costs of £10/m². For the 2017 List an addition of £20/m² is to be adopted costed from a basic standard of fit.

3. Ratepayer Discussions

3.1 Meetings have been held with representative agents and general discussions have taken place. There has been no prior agreement.

4. Valuation Scheme

4.1 Factory Outlet Village units will be valued overall. The valuation scale to be generally adopted is VVSGPOVERAL1.

4.2 Turnover rents – consideration of approach to analysis

The objective is to derive a standard unit price which fairly reflects the maintainable levels of value evidenced by tenants in the mainstream market. This class is valued by reference to turnover rents. Turnover Rents are comprehensively dealt with in RM Section 4 Part 1 Rental Adjustments PN 1 2017 Part 27 & 28. This should be read and understood by anyone dealing with this class of property. It should be remembered that all Turnover information is confidential and should not be disclosed to third parties. Data provided centrally by owner/landlords for all units on their sites is to be treated accordingly. A bespoke ‘turnover rent’ Form of Return VO6066 is also available for individual units to issue, which will be similarly treated. Contracting out of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954 may be normal practice

4.3 Base rents cover a considerable range but the values achieved are consistent and secure. Turnover percentages vary widely and are dependent on the strength of the individual trader.

4.4 Total rent/ total area approach

The use of the ‘total rent/ total area’ dataset as the basis for analysis conceals a rather more complicated underlying reality, which is that there are two independent variables (turnover and base rent) which more accurately illustrate what the rental evidence suggests for the site.

4.5 Analysis on a total rent basis is not robust as it presents a distorted picture of the rental sample. The more highly skewed turnover rent has the effect of shifting the total rent distribution as well as introducing outliers. It would therefore be inappropriate to derive the standard unit price from analysis of the total rent/ psm which is made up of two independent variables (base and turnover).

4.6 Median analysis

Using the median has the effect of reducing the influence of skewed/ extreme values in the dataset. Adopting the middle value of the range rather than measuring the average having omitted some outliers is a truer measure of the most representative rental level.

4.7 Adoption of the median analysis effectively produces a value truly representing the range within which all retailers and hence hypothetical tenant would fall. No further adjustment is therefore necessary as the approach excludes the rents at risk.

4.8 Capital contributions:

The main driver for payment, particularly the large amounts are to attract quality big name brands to enhance the centre. In essence a large part of the payment is ‘key money’.

4.9 For previous rating lists no adjustment was made to the standard unit price for capital contributions unless this was clearly evidenced as being the norm for the site.

4.10 Adjustment for valid capital contributions should be made to the individual unit rent prior to inclusion in the data sample. Where considered excessive, the units should be excluded from the analysis sample.

4.11 For turnover rents, the two income streams within the selected dataset, base and turnover, should be independently analysed.

4.12 The median analysis is the purest and preferred method to be used, cross checked with the original approach (Selected Base Rents/ Selected Floor Area and Selected Turnover Rents/ Total Site Area (excluding large units etc.)

4.13 To reduce the number of subjective assumptions made to derive the standard unit price it is recommended that a median analysis of the two separate rental incomes, base and turnover, for all standard units paying full years rent at AVD is undertaken.

4.14 A median analysis of the two income streams, base & turnover is both simple and transparent and produces values representative of the mainstream market for the units on the site. Using the median on the entire data set rather than measuring the average having omitted some outliers gives a true measure of the most representative rental level and no further subjective adjustments to either base or turnover element are required. Comparison with other methods of analysis evidences the result is both fair and maintainable.

4.15 The Factory Outlet Village rental spreadsheet Factory Villages Master Template 2017 should be used to ensure consistent application of the valuation approach outlined in this guidance.

4.16 Rental Data:

Historically rental information for this class has been fragmented between RSA and hardcopy turnover information, there has been no central data record of the turnover rents and subsequent analysis deriving the standard unit price.

4.17 Currently turnover details cannot be entered on the rental menu system in RSA.

Practice Note 1 : 2010 - Factory outlet villages

1. Co-ordination

This is a Group Class. Co-ordination responsibilities are set out in Rating Manual section 6 part 1

For Factory Outlet Village units (FOVs), the Special Category Code is 097 (Factory Shops). As a Group Class, the appropriate suffix letter is G.

The Primary Description Code of CS should be used when creating an assessment.

FOVs should be valued using the standard general overall scale for shops, VXSGPOVERAL1

For Reval 2010, it is anticipated that each Group will have a limited number (one is preferred) of individuals responsible for the class.

Each Group should allocate a named co-ordinator, or Lead Valuer, to act as a point of contact within the Group. This Lead Valuer will be responsible for delivering the Group’s valuation scheme and also for liaising on value and technical issues with other Lead Valuers across adjoining Groups and the Class co-ordination team

2. Description

A factory village is a purpose built destination out of town retail development. Each village typically, but not exclusively, comprises over 40 units let predominantly as manufacturers outlets, a food court and ancillary accommodation including a management suite, public toilets, children’s play area, car parking and coach parking. Such centres allow manufacturers and retailers to dispose of surplus and obsolete stock. The unit leases usually contain a condition that goods must be sold at a certain percentage below the recommended retail price.

An overview of the FOV market as at 2008 is attached at Appendix 1 to this guidance. Appendix 2 details the FOV sites in England and Wales.

3 Survey Requirements

The basis of measurement is Gross Internal Area (GIA) as defined in the RICS code of measuring practice. This is how the market let the units and therefore the only method to be adopted.

3.1 Plant & Machinery

Adequate information regarding all items of Plant & Machinery should be carefully recorded, including those frequently found, such as type of air conditioning, heating, fire protection, security camera systems, lifts etc. Details will be required not only to assess their affect on value, but also in the event of particulars being sought by the ratepayers or their agents under the relevant statutory provisions. Reference should also be made to RM4: 3 and the VOA Rating Cost Guide.

Heating and air conditioning - The extent and effectiveness of heating and air-conditioning systems will vary significantly according to the type of system installed, the range of facilities offered, their performance, and the degrees of environmental control.

A basic air conditioning system usually incorporates facilities for heating, cooling and ventilating. More complex systems also control humidity, monitor the through-flow of air, filter, purify and deodorise the re-circulated air, and offer localised control in different parts of the premises or parts of a floor.

Fire protection and security systems - These may be a total outlet village system and individual unit systems. They should be clearly identified and recorded.

4. Basis of Valuation

4.1 Rental Basis

This class is valued by reference to turnover rents. Turnover Rents are comprehensively dealt with in Rating Manual section 4 part 1 Rental Adjustments PN 1 2010 Part 27 & 28. This should be read and understood by anyone dealing with this class of property. It should be remembered that all Turnover information is confidential and should not be disclosed to third parties. Data provided centrally by owner/landlords for all units on their sites is to be treated accordingly. A bespoke ‘turnover rent’ form of return VO6066 is also available for individual unit issue, which will be similarly treated.

5. Valuation Approach

5.1 Background

In order to maximise the return of the individual retailers it is in the landlords’ interest to keep tight control over the tenant mix, management and promotion of the centre as a whole. This enables traders to compliment rather than compete with each other to the benefit of all parties. Contracting out of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954 is generally appropriate. Rents under turnover leases are more directly related to the ability to pay of individual traders for which turnover and profit margins vary and so will the level of rent a tenant is able to pay. Adoption of turnover leases therefore gives the landlord more flexibility to ensure the optimum tenant mix, a range of complementary traders to maximise the centre turnover and therefore the rental income as a whole. The valuation approach therefore reflects these circumstances by deriving a standard unit price applicable to all standard units.

5.2 The standard unit

Analysis of the lease agreements for these sites evidences that the individual tenants’ turnover is the significant factor in determining the rent agreement and as such the individual unit position within the site is not a value significant element.

The majority of units within a site fall within a standard range of sizes and the rental data provided by these units is analysed to determine the standard unit price applicable for the site. Typically the standard unit range is from 50-500m2; however the units at the site will determine the size range for that locality. Units not considered standard e.g. large units, kiosks and food courts are considered separately.

5.3 The standard unit value (pm2)

The standard unit price pm2 must fairly reflect the maintainable level of value evidenced for the standard units on the site. Traditional analysis of total rent paid is therefore inappropriate for turnover rents which are directly related to the ability to pay of individual traders for which turnover and profit margins vary.

To ensure analysis derives a value which is most representative of the rental level to be expected under the hypothetical tenancy, vacant and to let to the range of tenants likely to occupy units at the site, the two rental elements which make up the standard unit rent are considered separately.

The base rent element, i.e.: that level of rent, which is guaranteed will normally, be a price per square metre, usually consistent across a development. This element of rent will often be paid quarterly in advance, as in the case of traditional leases.

The turnover rent, i.e.: that element of rent that is variable subject to achievement of pre agreed turnover levels being exceeded

MORRISON E F (G P) LIMITED v CENTRAL SCOTLAND ASSESSOR LTS/VA/2001/16,21,25,38,39,47 decision held that where payment of turnover was not the norm for the site then an allowance may be pertinent, but that where turnover rents were evidenced to be an established part of the rental income then no allowance is necessary. Consideration of past performance and current market reviews will inform this decision.

5.4 Analysis of standard unit rental data

Individual analysis will generally depend on the standard lease details pertinent to the site and the specific detail of the gearing of the base/turnover elements. Following central discussions with the main agents to agree the R2005 valuation approach for this class and the subsequent settlement of the lead group appeals at Cheshire Oaks, it was accepted that the turnover element would be derived from analysis of those standard units for which turnover rent was paid, but to reflect any risk of achieving the turnover element regard would also be had to the total number of standard units in the range for which base rent only was paid.

To reduce the number of subjective assumptions made to derive the standard unit price, it is recommended that caseworkers also make a median analysis of the two separate rental incomes, base and turnover, for all standard units paying full years rent at AVD.

A median analysis of the two income streams, base & turnover is both simple and transparent and produces values representative of the mainstream market for the units on the site. Using the median on the entire data set, rather than measuring the average having omitted some outliers, gives a true measure of the most representative rental level and no further subjective adjustments to either base or turnover element are required. Comparison with other methods of analysis evidences that the result is both fair and maintainable.

The Factory Village Adjustment & Analysis Rent Schedule should be used to ensure consistent application of the valuation approach outlined in this guidance.

Standard units with unique elements reflected in the rent e.g. masked unit on the toilet spur or fronting the car park may be valued on standard unit price with an end allowance as appropriate

5.5 Non standard units

Large units, kiosks and food courts are not considered standard units as defined in 5.2 above and therefore the unit price (m2) to be adopted will be derived from analysis of the rental data for the units concerned, comparable units and with reference to the site standard unit price (m2).

6. Comparability

In all cases where comparability with another site can be anticipated it will be prudent to make a check valuation on a like for like basis

7. Valuation Considerations

7.1 Fitting Out

If the unit is a new let at base rent in shell condition, and the tenant has undertaken the fit out, then the actual fit out costs should be analysed and an addition made to the rent. In the absence of costs for R2005, £10/m2 addition was adopted and is retained for R2010. It should be noted that the addition does not include air conditioning. Air conditioning should be treated separately in accordance with the guidance given below. If all units on the site are let in shell condition then the standard unit price derived from the shell rents should be adjusted to reflect the tenants fit out.

Subsequent lets will not usually be for a shell unit, unless the lease wording specifies this is the assumption. If a turnover rent is being paid, then it is fair to assume that the unit is fit for purpose and the rent reflects the fit out.

7.2 Air conditioning

Where the unit demised includes air conditioning the value is considered reflected in the rent. If air conditioning is evidenced as the norm for the site its value will be considered reflected in the standard unit price adopted. In this situation units outside the norm i.e. without air conditioning will require an allowance to reflect its absence.

If air conditioning is not the norm the standard unit price will reflect this and an addition will be required to those units where air conditioning has been installed but not reflected in the rent. Where a unit excluding air conditioning is demised and air conditioning is installed as a tenants improvement then it should be valued in accordance with the guidance provided in Rating Manual section 6 part 3 section 920 PN1 2010 and the area served by the air conditioning data captured as an ‘other addition.

7.3 Fire protection and security systems

As for air conditioning above if these items are tenants improvements not reflected in the rent deriving the standard unit price they should be valued in accordance with the guidance given in Rating Manual section 4 part 1 Rental Adjustments PN 1 2010, part 14 tenants improvement, RM 4:Section 3: Plant & Machinery and the VOA Rating Cost Guide

7.4 Customer car parking

Adequate provision of customer car parking is an essential feature of factory outlet sites, both on grounds of planning and store operator requirements. In cases where the car parking forms part of the main retail site its presence can be said to be reflected in the value of the units.

However, if the car parking area forms a separate hereditament from the retail site, in the rateable occupation of the site operator, some other person, company or public body, then it should be valued at a level appropriate to the locality.

7.5 Concessions

Where all the ingredients of separate rateable occupation are apparent then the hereditament so identified should be separately assessed. It will be a matter of local judgement as to the appropriate level of value. The best evidence is likely to be derived from the payments made for the concessions themselves. Access to the concessions is frequently common to the circulation area used by all unit customers. Because these areas are essential to the site any allowance to the individual units for shared access will be limited to situations where the extent of the access area is deemed excessive.

7.6 Tenant added first floors

When considering evidence in arriving at values to be placed on any tenant added first floor space, it is important to follow the guidance found in Rating manual 4:5 Rental Adjustments - PN1 - 2010: (Part 14: Improvements).

Any values resulting from analysis of tenant added first floors should be recorded in RSA as an other addition: SFF (First Floor Sales) or RSF (First Floor Stores - Retail)

7.7 Automatic Teller Machines

See RM5: Section1120

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Practice Note 1: 2010: Appendix 1

Overview of the Factory Outlet Village (FOV) Market - 2003 to 2008

Factory outlet villages are groups of shops selling end-of-range and surplus stock at heavily discounted prices. Each shop is operated by a manufacturer who uses it to clear stock produced by that company. There are two types of factory outlet centre trading in the UK. One is the conventional mall style with rows of shops facing each other down a mock street. This can be seen at Bicester where developers Value Retail have created an upmarket discount shopping village; likewise at Chester, the original partnership between BAA and McArthur-Glen have developed an enormous factory shopping complex known as Cheshire Oaks.. The other type of centre is a hybrid combining conventional malls with leisure style shopping aimed at providing a family day out. A typical example is Clarkes Village in Somerset.

By 2003 almost 40 Factory Outlet Villages (FOVs), had been built in the UK. Not all developers had due regard to the fundamental factors which determine the success of such developments which resulted in a wide variance between the best and worst performing centres. Unlike traditional retail leases the landlord shares the risk with the tenants through the uniform application of turnover rents. This has meant that the best operators have shared in the success of those centres that have exceeded expectations whilst others have shared the problems in those centres that failed to achieve their original plan.

At the end of November 2006 according to research conducted by the International Council of Shopping Centres (ICSC), the outlet development boom in the UK had all but finished. The UK is Europe’s most mature FOV market, and its factory outlet centres are an established part of consumer life. However, according to ICSC, there is little planned expansion, due perhaps to developer concern about potential over-supply and planning controls. The UK market is now seeing some owners welcoming in any retailer, confusing the customer as to the centre’s true identity. A consolidation is occurring within the Sector as well as the failure of some centres, which have not performed to the level assumed by the developers. Accordingly, the industry is shifting its focus to asset managing existing properties in the UK, and looking overseas for less mature markets in which to develop.

The focus in the UK is now on extending and upgrading existing successful schemes, e.g. Bicester Village in Oxfordshire. In June 2008 Development Securities PLC announced the acquisition of the freehold interest in Atlantic Village Shopping Park, Bideford, North Devon for £20 million at an initial yield of 7%.

There are now 27 Factory Outlet Villages in England and Wales, operated by 13 landlord/owners. Significantly 8 sites are managed by Realm on behalf of Hermes Real Estate and 6 sites managed by McArthur Glen on behalf of a number of UK institutions, including BP pension fund, AXA and Morley Fund Management, as well as U.S. real estate investor Liquid Realty,

In April 2008 Henderson Global investors announced its intention to purchase a portfolio of designer outlets for around £371 million. The portfolio consists of three designer outlets, Cheshire Oaks, Bridgend and Swindon, all currently managed by McArthur Glen. It is likely that these sites will continue to be managed by McArthur Glen.

Practice Note 1: 2010: Appendix 2

England & Wales Factory Outlet Villages as at September 2008

Group Valuation Office Area Factory Outlet Village
East Anglia Freeport Shopping Village, Charter Way, Braintree, CM77 8YH
East Anglia Clacton Common Shopping Village, Stephenson Road, West Clacton on Sea, Essex, CO16 9HB
East Midlands Peak Village, Chatsworth Road, Rowsley, Matlock, Derbyshire, DE4 2JE
East Midlands Designer Outlet, Mansfield Road, South Normanton, Alfreton, Derbyshire, DE55 2ED
East Midlands Sprinfields Factory Outlet Centre, Camel Gate, Spalding PE12 6EU
Leeds Junction 32, Glass Houghton Castleford West Yorkshire WF10 4FB
Leeds Designer Outlet, St Nicholas Avenue, Fulford, York YO19 4TA
Leeds Yorkshire Mill Village, Bradford Road Batley West Yorkshire WF17 5LZ
Liverpool Cheshire Oaks Outlet Village Kinsey Road, Ellesmere Port, South Wirral, CH65 4AW CH65 9JJ
Manchester Designer Outlet Lowry Centre Salford Quays Manchester
Newcastle Dalton Park, Murton, Seaham, Co Durham, SR7 9HZ
Newcastle Royal Quays, North Shields NE29 6DW
North West Freeport Shopping Village, Anchorage Road Fleetwood Lancashire FY7 6AE
Reading Bicester Shopping Village, OX26 6WD
St Albans The Galleria, Comet Way, Hatfield, Herts
Sheffield Hornsea Freeport, Rolston Road, Hornsea, East Yorkshire HU18 1UT
Sheffield Lakeside Village White Rose Way Doncaster DN4 5JH.
South East McArthur Glen Designer Outlet, Kimberley Way, Ashford, Kent TN24 0SD
South Wales Welsh Designer Outlet Village, The Derwen, Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan CF32 9SU
South Wales Festival Park, Ebbw Vale NP 23 8FP
South West Atlantic Village Bideford EX39 3QU
South West Clarks Village Street
Wessex Gunwharf Quays Portsmouth
West Midlands Freeport Outlet Mall, Pit Lane, Talke Pits, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire ST7 1XD
Western Wilton Shopping Village King Street Wilton Salisbury Wiltshire SP2 0RS
Western Great Western Designer Outlet Village, Kemble Drive, Churchward, Swindon, SN2 2DZ + 2DY