Seventh report commissioned by BIS to assess the performance of the UK’s research base compared with seven other research-intensive countries (Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the US). Where data are available, it also makes comparisons with the EU27, OECD member countries’ groups, and three other fast growing nations (Brazil, Russia and India). It tracks investment and performance in the national research system in an international setting, research measures to present a multifaceted view of the UK’s comparative performance in research, and the trends that may affect its position. Appendices A and B are part of the main report; for appendices C to F, see URN 11/P123AN1 and 11/P123AN2. There is also an executive summary 11/P123ES. Underlying data for this publication is also available in a machine processable format on the Transparency/Report Data webpage.