The last 10 years have been a period of reform to the way in which the needs of children and young people with special educational needs and/or disabilities (SEND) are identified, assessed and met. This report reflects on these reforms and their impact. It also considers what has been working well in the SEND system over time and areas where the reforms have not had the desired impact. It looks at SEND at the start of 2020, when the pandemic began: the number of children and young people who are part of the ‘SEND system’, their outcomes and experiences at different ages, and their experiences of receiving services. This sets the context for the findings from Ofsted’s visits to local areas, where we found out about the experiences of children and young people through the pandemic.