Research and analysis

Review of non-pain inducing techniques and systems of restraint

This research identified and reviewed evidence on non-pain techniques used in different settings.


Review of International Evidence and Practice on Non-Pain Inducing Techniques and Systems of Restraint

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The objectives of this research are to:

  • identify, review and assess non-pain restraint techniques employed in different institutional settings across different countries (including England and Wales), and their effectiveness
  • assess the feasibility of implementing similar restraint techniques from other countries and settings within the under-18 secure estate in England and Wales


Dr Colin Dale, Caring Solutions (UK) Ltd; Professor Joy Duxbury, University of Central Lancashire; Dr Gill Thomson, University of Central Lancashire; Fran Aiken, Caring Solutions (UK) Ltd; Maggie Clifton, Caring Solutions (UK) Ltd; Tom Swan, Caring Solutions (UK) Ltd.

Published 12 May 2016