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The report explores how different types of federations impact on outcomes for pupils.
It identifies several types of federations:
Cross-phase federations: 2 or more schools of different phases
Performance federations: 2 or more schools, some low performing and others high performing
Size federations: 2 or more very small or small schools, or a small school and a medium-sized school
Mainstreaming federations:1 or more special schools combined with 1 or more mainstream schools
Faith federations: 2 or more schools of the same denomination
Academy federations: 2 or more academies run by the same sponsor within a federation or chain
Evidence from the case studies suggests performance federations have the strongest impact on outcomes for pupils. However, there is a time lag of between 2 and 4 years between forming the federation and seeing an impact.