Contractors will treat both northbound and southbound carriageways on the Hartley Bends with high friction surfacing to increase the skid resistance of the existing surface.
The improvement work will involve overnight closures between 8pm and 6am in both directions between Bath and the Cold Ashton roundabout.
The nightly closures, excluding weekends, will take effect from Monday, 9 May until Friday, 20 May, with diversion routes in place via the A420, A350 and A4 southbound and A4, A350 and A420 northbound.
Paul Barker, south west operations manager for Highways England, said:
Safety is the top priority for Highways England and as part of our routine annual surveys the Hartley Bends section of the A46 was identified and programmed into our schedule.
We see this as essential work to increase the skid resistance of the existing surface, which is coming to the end of its serviceable life.
We are implementing the nightly closures to ensure the safety of both the travelling public and our workforce, and to get the work done as quickly and safely as possible.
We understand our work may cause some inconvenience and disruption but we will make every effort to ensure that the impact of the work is kept to a minimum.
Diversion routes will be clearly signposted during the weeknight closures, with access maintained for residents and local businesses along the route.
More information will be available from the Highways England website and via the Highways England Customer Contact Centre on 0300 123 5000.
Members of the public should contact the Highways England customer contact centre on 0300 123 5000.
Journalists should contact the Highways England press office on 0844 693 1448 and use the menu to speak to the most appropriate press officer.