Codeine for analgesia: restricted use in children because of reports of morphine toxicity

Codeine should only be used to relieve acute moderate pain in children older than 12 years and only if it cannot be relieved by other painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen alone. Furthermore, a significant risk of serious and life-threatening adverse reactions has been identified in children with obstructive sleep apnoea who received codeine after tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy (or both). Codeine is now contraindicated in all children younger than 18 years who undergo these procedures for obstructive sleep apnoea