This paper presents the methodology and initial findings of the Young Lives School Survey in Peru, aimed at studying inequality in educational opportunities and outcomes of students from the Younger Cohort (born between 2001 and 2002). Data were collected in 132 schools in nine regions of Peru, representing four types of school: private urban, public urban, public rural (Spanish), and public rural (bilingual) schools. Information was gathered on school quality (inputs available at school such as its infrastructure, and educational processes within classrooms such as the social and pedagogical interactions that constitute the classroom climate), responsiveness of school to students’ needs and potential (e.g. instruction in their mother tongue, support for students at risk of dropping out), as well as achievement and socio-emotional outcomes.
A wide range of instruments was used to collect the data, including questionnaires which were completed by students, teachers, and head teachers; sociolinguistic questionnaires for those living in bilingual areas; achievement tests in maths and reading comprehension; direct observation of teacher attendance; and an assessment of mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. In addition to the quantitative survey component, the School Survey in Peru also included a qualitative sub-study focused on how indigenous students experience schooling in different educational contexts. In this case, data were collected from a sub-sample of students, teachers, and caregivers through interviews, focus groups, and school observations.
Overall, preliminary results show that there are important differences in the background of students attending different types of school, which suggests that the Peruvian educational system may be reinforcing social inequalities. The qualitative sub-study showed similar results, with indigenous children’s schooling experience not aligned with their linguistic and cultural background. Information provided in this paper is expected to be useful for researchers interested in working with the School Survey datasets.
Guerrero, G.; Leon, J.; Rosales, E.; Zapata, M.; Freire, S.; Saldarriaga, V.; Cueto, S. Young Lives Working Paper 92. Young Lives School Survey in Peru: Design and Initial Findings. Young Lives, Department of International Development at the University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (2012) 72 pp. ISBN 978-1-909403-04-8