As India comes close to realising universal enrolment at primary and
upper primary levels, the universalisation of secondary education has
become critical if the country is to achieve equitable social
development and build a skilled workforce. The Rashtriya Madhyamik
Rashtriya Shiksha Abhiyan (the National Mission for Secondary Education)
was launched to increase access and improve quality, but in 2013/14 only
46 per cent of children were enrolled in secondary school. This
mixed-methods paper uses Young Lives longitudinal data to explore
factors affecting completion of secondary education.
We find that a multitude of factors across the household, individual,
educational and social demographic domains affect children’s secondary
- Girls remain disadvantaged and are 45 per cent less likely to
complete secondary education than boys.
- Children with good reading skills at the age of 8 were found to be
1.7 times more likely and children with good writing skills were 3.3
times more likely to complete secondary education than children who
had relatively poor reading or writing skills at age 8.
- Children with a higher self-efficacy index are found to be nearly
1.7 times more likely to successfully progress through secondary
education than children with low self-efficacy.
- Children who spent three or more hours per day doing domestic chores
at age 12 were 70 per cent less likely to complete secondary
education, while those who did paid work at age 12 were 54 per cent
less likely to get a secondary school certificate.
The fact that boys are almost twice as likely as girls to complete
secondary education requires urgent policy attention, particularly in
rural areas. Much more attention needs to be given to pre-school
education and literacy skills in the early primary years, since there is
a strong co-relation with the completion of secondary education. It is
also important that children in primary school are not drawn into paid
work, since this has a detrimental effect on their long-term schooling –
and lowers the chances that they will complete secondary education.
Singh, R.; Mukherjee, P. Young Lives Working Paper 143. Determinants of Successful Completion of Secondary Education. Young Lives, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (2015) 38 pp. ISBN 978-1-909403-56-7
Young Lives Working Paper 143. Determinants of Successful Completion of Secondary Education