This paper discusses three forms of conflict and how they impact upon cities. In brief, sovereign conflict refers to situations where international actors are directly and explicitly involved in the war in question. Civil conflict refers to violent conflict between two or more organised groups one or more of which claims to represent part of the state itself. The struggle is for control of state institutions and/or territory within sovereign boundaries (though there may be outside intervention). Civic conflict refers to a broad array of conflict that tends to take place in cities.
Working Paper No. 85 (series 2), London, UK; Crisis States Research Centre, 35 pp.
Working Paper 85. Cities, Conflict and State Fragility.