This paper examines the extent and characteristics of extra classes among eight-year-old children in the Young Lives study conducted in Vietnam. It tests for association between taking extra classes and learning outcomes (numeracy, reading and writing skills).
Forty-six per cent of children in the Young Lives sites took extra classes - mainly (over 60 per cent) at the instigation of their parents. On average children attended extra classes for nine hours a week, with 90 per cent of those taking extra classes exceeding the legal limit of four hours a week. Thirty per cent of household education expenses was devoted to extra classes. The main factors associated with good learning outcomes were: household wealth; having educated parents; being from the majority ethnic group; and having good child mental health. Extra classes did not affect writing or numeracy but were linked with increased reading ability.
Tran Thu Ha, Tran Tuan, Harpham, T., Pham Thi Lan, Tran Duc Thach, Huttly, S., McCoy, A., Working Paper 29. Extra Classes and Learning Outcomes of Eight-year-old Children in Vietnam, 2005, London, UK; Save the Children UK, 34 pp.