Why Youth in Developing Country Start Smoking? A Study of Yogyakarta Municipality.
Objective- To understand factors that stimulate youth to start smoking in Yogyakarta Municipality, Indonesia.
Subject and methods- A qualitative study was done to explore the factors influencing youth, especially females, to start smoking. Based on the qualitative study result, a questionnaire was developed and pre tested. A survey was conducted in a junior high school, with participation of 1270 students.
Results- Qualitative study found that factors influencing youth to smoke are categorized into 4 factors: 1) norms, 2) economic consideration, 3) self value and 4) coping mechanism among youth. The survey showed that role models of smoking (sibling and peers who smoke), closeness to peers, attitude toward smoking and advertisement exposure were significantly related to smoking initiation. The exposure of these factors start at a very young age, resulting in early intentions to try smoking (6-12 years) and a young age of starting smoking (10-13 years). Norms toward girls who smoke was extremely negative but for boys was negative.
Conclusions- Qualitative and quantitative data collection support and ensure the advocacy to stakeholders to perform tobacco control activity.