Context: In Orissa, one of the most impoverished states in India,
reproductive health is poor, and the use of condoms and other reversible
contraceptives is uncommon. To promote condom use, it is important to
know who is using condoms, whether condoms are used for pregnancy or
disease prevention and how much potential for use exists in a community.
Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey carried out in 1998
in the four coastal districts of Orissa among 2,087 men aged 18-35
collected data on fertility preferences, sexual behavior and condom use.
Levels of use and need for condoms were estimated separately for sexual
activity within and outside marriage. Aggregate levels of use and need
were derived by applying individual-level estimates to the male
Results: Ninety percent of all condoms were used for sex within marriage
(44% for spacing and 46% for limiting births). Condoms were used during
3% of marital sex acts and 15% of nonmarital sex acts. Two-thirds of the
unmet need for condoms is for premarital or extramarital sex (53% and
13%, respectively). Given the current method mix, men in Orissa have an
unmet need for 2.3 million condoms annually, but if users of traditional
methods were encouraged to switch to modern methods, that total would
reach 4.4 million.
Conclusions: Condoms should be promoted differently among different
target groups: as an effective way to prevent HIV and other sexually
transmitted diseases among the minority of men who engage in high-risk
sexual behavior, as a means of preventing both pregnancy and disease
among young unmarried men and as a spacing method among married couples.
Collumbien, M.; Das, B.; Campbell, O.M.R. Why Are Condoms Used, and How Many Are Needed? Estimates from Orissa, India. International Family Planning Perspectives (2001) 27 (4) 171-177.
Why Are Condoms Used, and How Many Are Needed? Estimates from Orissa, India