What are the main links between urbanisation and violence in Pakistan? What positive opportunities does urbanisation offer for conflict reduction? Provide examples of donor approaches to conflict reduction in urban environments.
This rapid review identifies literature on the links between urbanisation and violence in Pakistan. Pakistan has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. High levels of urbanisation have been fuelled by a range of factors, including war, insecurity, economic necessity, and decreasing dependency on the agricultural sector (Arif and Hamid 2009). There is a broad body of literature on violence in Pakistan, however less specific material drawing links between urbanisation and incidences of violence. Some of the links between urbanisation and violence are: Competition for resources, especially land, water and housing; Weak infrastructure; Demographic change, ethnic divisions and political conflict; and Socio-economic disparities and unemployment.
Hinds, R. Urbanisation and conflict in Pakistan (GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 1115). Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK (2014) 9 pp.