Since Independence in 1963, Kenya has launched three Free Primary Education programmes: the first in 1974, the second in 1979 and the most recent in 2003. Using historical data, this paper first outlines each initiative in turn, and discusses why, in the case of the earlier initiatives, impressive initial gains in improved access proved difficult to sustain. Then in the final section, insights gained from a recent micro-level case study of the impact of the third Free Primary Education programme in nine schools are used to explore three access-related issues, and their implications for current and future policy.
Comparative Education (2009) 45 (2) 233-250 [doi: 10.1080/03050060902920807]
Universalising primary education in Kenya: the elusive goal.