DFID has worked to link adaptation and resilience in its work on climate
change. Its work recognises that vulnerability and responses to climate
change depend to some degree on developing countries’ structures and
patterns. Oxford Policy Management (OPM) carried out a literature review
to assess the evidence for this line of thinking. The review covers the
main findings, gaps and future prospects of the literature published
since 2004. Specifically, the review examines four research questions,
each of which has its own rationale, hypothesis and approach:
(i) Question: Is there evidence that weather changes and climate shocks
have a negative impact on economic growth?
Rationale: DFID will be able to justify the shift toward more
Hypothesis: Weather changes and climate shocks have a negative impact
on economic growth in both the short and the long run.
Approach: Widely recognised sources, academic literature and grey
literature are reviewed.
(ii) Question: Do weather-related shocks that have an impact at the
micro level translate to the macro level and vice versa?
Rationale: DFID will be better able to identify ways to support
Hypothesis: Weather-related shocks and trend changes that have an
impact on the micro-economy can add up to macroeconomic impacts (and
vice versa) because the economy is full of interlinked systems and
Approach: The concepts discussed in the literature are analysed, along
with their limitations.
(iii) Question: Are there some patterns of development that increase or
reduce the vulnerability of an economy to climate change?
Rationale: DFID will be better able to offer policy advice on
Hypothesis: There are some patterns of development that increase the
vulnerability of an economy to climate shocks, and there are some that
build resilience to deal with shocks (and, potentially, future trends).
Approach: Three development patterns are reviewed in greater detail.
(iv) Question: Is it possible to shape patterns of development using
Rationale: DFID will be better able to offer policy advice and to
determine areas where future research is needed.
Hypothesis: It is possible to shape patterns of development using
policy levers. Some policy levers are more effective than others in
shaping patterns toward resilience building.
Approach: Two countries’ (Ethiopia and Bangladesh) responses to climate
change are assessed.
This report has been produced by Oxford Policy Management for the UK
Department for International Development (DFID) Adaptation Knowledge and
Tools programme and published through Evidence on Demand.
The Adaptation Knowledge and Tools programme is a DFID-funded programme
intended to maximise the effectiveness of UK and international
investment in climate change adaptation and resilience. The knowledge
and tools generated through this programme are expected to promote
greater understanding of what constitutes best practice in adaptation,
as well as better international cohesion and coordination around
adaptation. Through these entry points the programme expects to increase
the quality of international and UK adaptation programming and reduce
Tarazona, M.; Chiappe, F.; Hearle, C. Understanding the Patterns of Climate-Resilient Development: A Literature Review. Oxford Policy Management, Oxford, UK (2014) x + 70 pp.