During 2011 a large outbreak of typhoid fever affected an estimated 1430 people in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreak started in military camps in the city but then spread to the general population. This paper reports the results of an ecological analysis and a case-control study undertaken to examine water and other possible transmission pathways. Attack rates were determined for health areas and risk ratios were estimated with respect to spatial exposures. Approximately 15 months after the outbreak, demographic, environmental and exposure data were collected for 320 cases and 640 controls residing in the worst affected areas, using a structured interview questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Complete data were available for 956 respondents.
This research was supported by the UK Department for International Development’s Operational Research Capacity Building Programme led by the International Union Against TB and Lung Disease (The Union)
Brainard J, D’hondt R, Ali E, Van den Bergh R, De Weggheleire A, Baudot Y, Patigny F, Lambert V, Zachariah R, Maes P, Kuma-Kuma Kenge D, Hunter PR. Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Case control and ecological study. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.2018;12(10):e0006795.
Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Case control and ecological study