The recognition of tuberculosis (TB) as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons has led to renewed interest in TB preventive therapy and its incorporation into the essential package of health care for these individuals. Despite convincing data regarding its efficacy, TB preventive therapy has not been widely implemented. Further work is needed to determine how to overcome the barriers to the implementation of such therapy, including how best to exclude the presence of active TB before providing preventive therapy. Such issues as the optimal duration of preventive therapy for and the role of TB preventive therapy in the treatment of individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy remain to be defined. Ongoing research will help to determine how best to use this intervention in the care of HIV-infected persons and in the control of TB on a wider basis.
Journal of Infectious Diseases (2007) 196 (S1) S52-S62 [doi: 10.1086/518662]