Transmitted HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Individuals with Recent HIV Infection in East and Southern Africa


To characterize WHO-defined transmitted HIV drug resistance mutation (TDRM) data from recently HIV-infected African volunteers, we sequenced HIV (pol) and evaluated for TDRM the earliest available specimens from ARV-naive volunteers diagnosed within 1 year of their estimated date of infection at eight research centers in sub-Saharan Africa. TDRMs were detected in 19/408 (5%) volunteers. The prevalence of TDRMs varied by research center, from 5/26 (19%) in Entebbe, 6/78 (8%) in Kigali, 2/49 (4%) in Kilifi, to 3/106 (3%) in Lusaka. One of five volunteers from Cape Town (20%) had TDRMs. Despite small numbers, our data suggest an increase in DRMs by year of infection in Zambia (p  = 0.004). The prevalence observed in Entebbe was high across the entire study. ARV history data from 12 (63%) HIV-infected sexual partners were available; 3 reported ARV use prior to transmission. Among four partners with sequence data available, transmission linkage was confirmed and two had the same TDRMs as the newly infected volunteer (both K103N). As ARV therapy continues to increase in availability throughout Africa, monitoring incident virus strains for the presence of TDRMs should be a priority. Early HIV infection cohorts provide an excellent and important platform to monitor the development of TDRMs to inform treatment guidelines, drug choices, and strategies for secondary prevention of TDRM transmission.


AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (2011) 27 (1) 5-12 [doi:10.1089/aid.2010.0030]

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