Please give an overview of the main tools and levers (in country and internationally) that can best deter grand corruption between government and the private sector during the award/implementation of public procurement contracts and major concessions and licenses. Please cite developing country examples where possible.
To promote integrity in public procurement and government concessions both the supply and demand side of corruption should be tackled. Open contracting, enhanced transparency, integrity and monitoring mechanisms and training of procurement officials, as well as corporate integrity and incentives and deterrents for the private sector should be combined to reduce grand corruption.
Wickberg, S. Tools to reduce private sector engagement in grand corruption during the award of public contracts, concessions and licenses. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, CMI, Bergen, Norway (2013) 10 pp. [U4 Expert Answer 369]