The goal of the project was to contribute to the Department for International Development (DfID) purpose of creating an improved understanding of marine and freshwater capture and enhancement fisheries and to develop and promote their contribution to the livelihoods of the poor. The purpose of the project was to test the mechanisms for implementing successful FAD programmes in East Africa and for communicating that success to relevant stakeholders. The project was partnered by the Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources, Zanzibar; the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Dar es Salaam; WWF Tanzania Programme Office; and CCAfrica.
The project started in September 2003 and comprised the following main phases:
• Site survey;
• FAD purchase and importation of equipment (1);
• FAD construction and deployment (1);
• FAD purchase and importation of equipment (2);
• FAD construction and deployment (2);
• FAD monitoring;
• Offshore fisheries training.
Following delayed but successful importation of all the necessary equipment from South Korea, the third phase suffered a set-back due to the problems with the original FAD design. The effective delay of one year for a second deployment and project end of October 2005 meant that the bulk of the outputs and activities were restricted to a period of only seven months.
The design failure, requirements and preparations for a second deployment forced a number of adjustments to the project for its continuation. The second importation of equipment and a no-cost extension of the project was needed. As a result, investigations into socio-economic and marketing issues were largely irrelevant since these components rely on the successful use of the FAD and associated gears for a considerable time period, at least a few months, for comparison with existing gears and practices. All efforts were then focused on re-design, importation of equipment for three new FADs and re-deployment. Following deployment, monitoring of FAD performance was continued but hampered as wind and sea conditions deteriorated as the SE Monsoon season developed.
Within this much reduced effective project life, numerous outputs of the project were nonetheless produced. Bathymetric data between 300-700 m depth was gathered from three sites at two locations: northeast Unguja island, Zanzibar, and off the southeast of Mafia Island. Buoyancy systems were tested using different floats, FAD materials were imported and FADs constructed and deployment procedures were successfully followed using different logistical and shipping arrangements. Some fisheries data was gathered from Nungwi on Zanzibar and from demersal catches at Mafia, practical training on FAD fishing gears and there were a series of diverse communication outputs.
In terms of the project's contribution towards DfID's development goals, progress has been made on a number of fronts. Firstly, poor fishers on Mafia Island and Zanzibar have been shown and encouraged to venture further offshore, between 4-6 miles from the fringing coral reefs, to fish around six FADs, the latter representing new technology. At these two offshore locations fish were caught despite the adverse weather conditions during fishing training. Secondly, poor fishers have been instructed and have proven their ability in the use of new technology - vertical long-lining for fishing in deepwater and, more significantly, with circle hooks. Thirdly, fisheries officers from the participating institutions of Mbegani Fisheries Development Centre, the Zanzibar Government Fisheries Department, and staff at the Mafia Islands Marine Park have been actively involved in the main phases of the project and are now in a position to independently develop FAD Programmes. Two local vessels were used for FAD deployment (from MFDC and the private sector) thus further widening the promotion uptake options for local stakeholders.
Conclusions Without conclusive results on FAD performance and increase fish yields, adoption cannot be expected. Nevertheless, the project has introduced a wide variety of stakeholders to the concept and potential of deep-sea FAD fisheries, previously tried (unsuccessfully) in Tanzania in 1984. These include poor people (fishers) but also institutions supplying services to the poor (national and district government; national