During extensive sampling in Burkina Faso and other African countries, the Leu-Phe mutation producing the kdr pyrethroid resistance phenotype was reported in both Anopheles gambiae ss and A. arabiensis. This mutation was widely distributed at high frequency in the molecular S form of A. gambiae while it has been observed at a very low frequency in both the molecular M form and A. arabiensis in Burkina Faso. While the mutation in the M form is inherited through an introgression from the S form, its occurrence is a new and independent mutation event in A. arabiensis. Three nucleotides in the upstream intron of the kdr mutation differentiated A. arabiensis from A. gambiae ss and these specific nucleotides were associated with kdr mutation in A. arabiensis. Ecological divergences which facilitated the spread of the kdr mutation within the complex of A. gambiae ss in West Africa, are discussed.
Diabate, A.; Brengues, C.; Baldet, T.; Dabire, K.R.; Hougard, J.M.; Akogbeto, M.; Kengne, P.; Simard, F.; Guillet, P.; Hemingway, J.; Chandre, F. The spread of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation through Anopheles gambiae complex in Burkina Faso: genetic introgression and de novo phenomena. Tropical Medicine and International Health (2004) 9 (12) 1267-1273. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01336.x]