This report summarises the findings of a rigorous review on the role and impact of philanthropic and religious schools in developing countries. A prior review initially sought to cover all types of non-state schools, but was subsequently separated into two parts (the other part specifically reviewed the role and impact of private schools in developing countries). The categorisation of these providers has been driven by the coverage of the literature with a focus on those education providers whose foundational ideology is religious (religious schools) and those founded as philanthropic organisations, such as NGOs, CSOs, etc. (philanthropic schools). A full discussion of these categories will be set out in a full final report that synthesises the two reviews and will enable the drawing of comparisons across these types of provision.
While there has been a growing interest in the potential contribution of non-state providers of education to meet international educational goals, much of the recent debate has focused on low-cost private schools. The potential and implications of other forms of providers have received relatively little attention, despite their substantial and important role in a range of developing countries. These providers may operate with a set of incentives and purposes very different from those of private schools, affecting how and where they operate as well as their relationship with the state and state education systems. Mapping our existing knowledge and gaps on the role of these providers – how they operate, which communities they serve and the quality and type of education they provide – as well as understandings of how they interact with international actors, the state and state education provision, can therefore provide important insights into if and how they might improve access to quality education for all.
Wales, J.; Aslam, M.; Hine, S.; Rawal, S. The role and impact of philanthropic and religious schools in developing countries: a rigorous review of the evidence. EPPI-Centre, SSRU, UCL Institute of Education, London, UK (2015) 128 pp. [DFID Education Rigorous Literature Review]