This paper compares and contrasts the ways in which policy environments, particularly government structures, can impede or expedite implementation of effective HIV prevention. Four elements of these environments are discussed – the role of political leadership, the existing bureaucratic system, the health care infrastructure, and the roles assigned to non-state actors. Two common international strategies for HIV prevention, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour change interventions, are examined in relation to these elements in Uganda and South Africa during the mid to late 1990s.
Parkhurst, J.; Lush, L. The political environment of HIV: lessons from a comparison of Uganda and South Africa. Social Science and Medicine (2004) 59 (9) 1913-1924. [DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.02.026]