The profound changes of the world trading system since the 1980s are reflected in the transition from \"shallow\" to \"deeper\" integration (shallow integration is economic integration based on the removal of barriers to exchange at the border, and limited coordination of national policies). This paper considers this transition looking at: spontaneous regulatory convergence; self regulation; international standards organizations; varieties of regulatory harmonization; regulatory science and free trade; the precautionary principle and the WTO; food safety and the cost of non-harmonization; and decision making under uncertainty.
Manchester, UK, CRC Working Paper, No. 57, 28 pp.
The internationalization of regulation: implications for Developing Countries.