OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and determinants of dysmenorrhoea,
the most common menstrual complaint, in a community in India.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
SETTING: Catchment area of primary health centre in Goa, India.
POPULATION: Three thousand women aged 18-45 years randomly selected. A
total of 2494 women consented to participate (83.1%). METHODS: Eligible
participants were asked standardised questions regarding menstrual
complaints over the past 12 months, and socio-demographic, psychosocial
and reproductive risk factors. Vaginal or urine specimens were collected
for the diagnosis of reproductive tract infections.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dysmenorrhoea of moderate to severe intensity.
RESULTS: A total of 2262 women were eligible. More than half reported
dysmenorrhoea; moderate to severe dysmenorrhoea was reported by 755
participants (33.4%, 95% CI 31.4-35.4). There was a linear association
between severity of pain and impact (medication and taking rest) and the
onset of pain (premenstrual onset associated with more severe pain). On
multivariate analyses, the risk of moderate-severe dysmenorrhoea was
associated with the experience of violence (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.5-34);
other somatic complaints (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.7-4.9 for highest somatoform
symptom score category compared with the lowest); gynaecological
complaints (non-menstrual lower abdominal pain: OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.3-2.3;
dysuria: OR 1.98, 1.4-2.7); menorrhagia (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.4-2.6); and
illiteracy (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Having had a pregnancy (OR 0.53,
95% CI 0.4-0.7), older age of menarche (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.5-0.9, for age
>14 compared with
CONCLUSIONS: The burden of dysmenorrhoea is greater than any other
gynaecological complaint, and is associated with significant impact.
Social disadvantage, co-morbidity with other somatic syndromes and
reproductive factors are determinants of this complaint.
Patel, V.; Tanksale, V.; Sahasrabhojanee, M.; Gupte, S.; Nevrekar, P. The burden and determinants of dysmenorrhoea: a population-based survey of 2262 women in Goa, India. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (2006) 113 (4) 453-463. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.00874.x]
The burden and determinants of dysmenorrhoea: a population-based survey of 2262 women in Goa, India.