Tethered Flight Technique for Monitoring the Flight Performance of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
A computer-monitored insect flight mill system is described which allows tethered insects the freedom to take off, fly, and land at will. Take off and landing times, flight duration, distance flown, and average speed are logged automatically. Feeding and oviposition are also possible while the insect is tethered to the device. The mill system has been used under field conditions in India and the Sudan to monitor the flight potential of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) moths. Various methods for monitoring the flight activity of tethered insects and the implications of using flight mills are discussed.
Cooterm, R.J.; Armes, N.J. Tethered Flight Technique for Monitoring the Flight Performance of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology (1993) 22 (2) 339-345.