The paper reviews, synthesizes and criticizes the voluminous, multidisciplinary literature on technology transfer. To reduce the literature to manageable proportions, it focuses chiefly (not exclusively) on recent literature on domestic technology transfer from universities and government laboratories. It begins by examining a set of fundamental conceptual issues, especially the ways in which the analytical ambiguities surrounding technology transfer concepts affect research and theory. The literature review follows and it emphasizes technology transfer's impact and effectiveness. A “Contingent Effectiveness Model of Technology Transfer” is employed to organize the literature. As the model's name implies, it assumes that technology effectiveness can take a variety of forms. In addition to examining the more traditional effectiveness criteria- those rooted in market impacts- the model considers a number of alternative effectiveness criteria, including political effectiveness, capacity-building.
Bozeman, B. Technology transfer and public policy: a review of research and theory. Research Policy (2000) 29 (4-5) 627-655. [DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00093-1]