Using an example from Sudan, this study aims to review project experiences and draw concrete lessons to inform future approaches in urban development. It compares results between settlements with and without NGO programme interventions in both Greater Khartoum and Kassala in eastern Sudan. The studies, carried out in 2003 with DFID funding, adopted a livelihoods framework for assessing the impacts of work with displaced populations. They compare emergency-oriented interventions in Khartoum, with integrated, development-oriented approaches in Kassala.
Sudan: Displacement and eventual inclusion?