This study investigates the conditions under which demand for evaluation
is generated, the latent and potential demand for evaluation, the range
and capacity of entities supplying evaluation services, and the areas in
which supply can be strengthened to meet and foster this demand. This
study has shown that there are currently active, latent and potential
demands for evaluation in Ethiopia. The latent and potential demands are
nested within the demands for evidence from principals and government
agents in Ethiopia. The demand for evaluation is not driven, as often
assumed, by Development Partners (DPs), but by the Government of
Ethiopia (GoE) policy matrix which serves as Ethiopia’s evaluation
The drivers for demand within the policy matrix are the five-year
development plan and a global move forward on aid effectiveness as
Ethiopia is an aid recipient economy. Every year there are Annual
Progress Reports (APRs) on plan performance and every five years since
1990, a rigorous evaluation of the totality of government plans and
policies takes place. Historically, the largest demand is embodied in
requirements established by joint programmes or aid reporting demands
specified by DPs. Recently, however, the shape of demand has evolved in
a more systematic fashion and there are indications that the GoE is
beginning to engage with the need for structured evaluations to guide
interventions, budget allocation and policy. The GoE is planning to
implement Results Based Management (RBM) with Monitoring and Evaluation
(M&E) as one of the pillars.
Supply unfolds in two ways. The first is the regular provision of annual
performance monitoring reports, with limited efficacy and value for
wider impact analysis. The second one focuses on periodical evaluation
of government development plans based on household surveys. Outside of
the formal system of government, supply is largely from DP-contracted
suppliers for financially supported by DPs. Evaluative research is
undertaken by some civil society organisations. However, the scale of
evaluative research is constrained by the limited capacity within the
government and the wider society. The higher education sector,
specifically universities, have expanded over the past few years, but
the focus has been on teaching and learning, with limited time and
capacity available for evidence-based research that could inform policy.
A number of journals exist within the academic and professional
community space, but the production of evaluation studies is very
limited due to capacity constraints.
There are opportunities embedded in the emergent system that would
facilitate the construction of a more robust and effective demand for,
and supply of, evaluation within the government system. The GoE is
committed to M&E by incorporating it in its five-year development
and sectoral plans. The commitment is also reflected in the manner in
which RBM is embraced. Furthermore, the GoE has high level strategy
sector forums for policy dialogue and M&E with DPs. The commitment
to enhance the capacity and mandate of the Central Statistical Agency
(CSA) is another reflection of commitment to M&E.
Alemu, G.; Latib, S. Study on the demand for and supply of evaluation in Ethiopia. Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results Anglophone Africa (CLEAR-AA), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa (2013) v + 37 pp.
Study on the demand for and supply of evaluation in Ethiopia.