This study is one of a series of regional studies which aim to present evidence of the interactions between environmental, social, political and economic risks at the local level in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Drawing on field research and consultations with policy-makers, practitioners and academics, this case study looks at the dimensions of local resilience and the reasons for vulnerability and non-adaptation in two districts, Thatta and Badin, in Sindh province. Thatta is a coastal area exposed to environmental risks such as coastal intrusion and floods. The environmental risks in Badin are predominantly linked to extreme and unpredictable rainfall patterns, storm surges and cyclones. As well as the different environmental risks, Badin provides a more urban study site in contrast with more rural Thatta to give a balance of peri-urban and rural perspectives.
In order to understand local resilience, the case study aims to address two key questions:
1. What are the root causes of vulnerability (to climate and conflict risks)?
2. How can external adaptation interventions (by the state or international institutions) address these root causes of vulnerability?
Findings from this study point to the following as key priority areas to build resilience:
• Changing people’s attitude towards the benefits of education, and improving the quality and quantity of education provision;
• Inclusion of governance challenges in adaptation and disaster risk reduction programming to ensure effective implementation of donor-financed climate change projects;
• Prioritising activities that not only build resilience but also reinforce the social contract, as they provide a cost-effective way to improve fractious relationships between citizens and local government in fragile contexts.
Khan, M.A.; Pandey, N.; Vivekananda, J. Strengthening responses to climate variability in south Asia. Discussion paper: Pakistan. International Alert, London, UK (2013) 48 pp.