This study is one of a series of regional studies which aim to present
evidence of the interactions between environmental, social, political
and economic risks at the local level in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and
Pakistan. Drawing on field research and consultations with
policy-makers, practitioners and academics, this case study looks at the
dimensions of local resilience and the reasons for vulnerability and
non-adaptation in two districts, Thatta and Badin, in Sindh province.
Thatta is a coastal area exposed to environmental risks such as coastal
intrusion and floods. The environmental risks in Badin are predominantly
linked to extreme and unpredictable rainfall patterns, storm surges and
cyclones. As well as the different environmental risks, Badin provides a
more urban study site in contrast with more rural Thatta to give a
balance of peri-urban and rural perspectives.
In order to understand local resilience, the case study aims to address
two key questions:
1. What are the root causes of vulnerability (to climate and conflict
2. How can external adaptation interventions (by the state or
international institutions) address these root causes of vulnerability?
Findings from this study point to the following as key priority areas to
• Changing people’s attitude towards the benefits of education, and
improving the quality and quantity of education provision;
• Inclusion of governance challenges in adaptation and disaster risk
reduction programming to ensure effective implementation of
donor-financed climate change projects;
• Prioritising activities that not only build resilience but also
reinforce the social contract, as they provide a cost-effective way to
improve fractious relationships between citizens and local government in
Khan, M.A.; Pandey, N.; Vivekananda, J. Strengthening responses to climate variability in south Asia. Discussion paper: Pakistan. International Alert, London, UK (2013) 48 pp.
Strengthening responses to climate variability in south Asia. Discussion paper: Pakistan