Forest closure on the three original Krakatau Islands (Panjang, Rakata, and Sertung) took place ca 1930, about 50 yr after the apparent sterilization of the islands due to volcanic eruptions. Two permanent forest plots were established on each of these islands in 1989. A full enumeration of these plots, of two additional Rakata plots, and of two \"mainland\" plots from the Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, was undertaken in 1992. These data provide the first estimates of aboveground biomass from Krakatau. The values reported for Krakatau are below the local West Javan figures, with considerable variation occurring within the islands. In 1992, the fourth Krakatau island, Anak Krakatau, began an eruption sequence which continued through the study period, depositing ash on the study sites of Panjang and Sertung. A further partial survey of these plots in 1994-1995 revealed a significant increase in mortality since the volcanic activity recommenced, with an increase in deaths of larger stems. Although Rakata has not been influenced directly by volcanism, three sites surveyed on Rakata in 1994-1995 have experienced increased tree mortality, in two cases as a consequence of storm damage and in particular, of lightning strikes. Stand dynamics on Krakatau thus appear to be strongly influenced by episodic environmental disturbance with varying degrees of dependence on the volcanic activity of Anak Krakatau.
WHITTAKER, R.J., SCHMITT, S.F., JONES, S.J., PARTOMIHARDJO, T. AND BUSH, M.B. (1998). Stand biomass and tree mortality from permanent forest plots on Krakatau, Indonesia, 1989-1995. Biotropica. 30. (4). pp. 519-529.