The prevention and control of Human African Trypanosomiasis depends on application of knowledge and appropriate technologies to modify tsetse ecology by community members and relevant stakeholders. In our study Ugandan districts reported more T.b.r. than the neighboring districts in Kenya in the past 30–50 years. Historical, political, social and economic factors have influenced the ecology of HAT vectors and its prevalence in both Western Kenya and Southeast Uganda. The villagers' participation in different conventional and traditional methods of tsetse control influenced HAT occurrence and distribution in the study area. Cattle husbandry practices and marketing may affect the spread of HAT disease as reported in Western Kenya and Southeast Uganda. Land use had immense influence on the occurrence of the tsetse flies and wildlife carriers of trypanosomiasis. The modification of vegetation cover through bush clearing reduced habitats suitability to tsetse flies. The respondents' occupation and gender roles played a role in influencing the interaction between humans and tsetse flies. Human African trypanosomiasis could be controlled effectively by modifying both physical and socio-political factors that affect the interaction of tsetse flies and human beings.
Rutto, J.J.; Osano, O.; Thuranira, E.G.; Kurgat, R.K.; Odenyo, V.A.O. Socio-Economic and Cultural Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis at the Kenya &#8211; Uganda Transboundary. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (2013) 7 (4) e2186. [DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002186]