Please review a selection of quantitative, qualitative and participatory tools and methods used by development agencies to undertake macro-level poverty and social exclusion analysis. Identify the scope and intended application of these tools, resources and skills required to use them, and any lessons learned.
This report identifies and reviews a selection of tools and methods used by bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental development agencies to conduct social exclusion and other social approaches to poverty analysis. In recent years, development agencies have grown increasingly dissatisfied with income-only approaches to understanding poverty, and have begun to focus on the role of social factors in shaping development outcomes. As such, there has been growing consensus on the complementarity of economic and social policy in order to achieve development outcomes. In particular, understanding social exclusion has come to be seen as key to ensuring that all poor people benefit from poverty reduction interventions (DFID 2009). While exclusion can occur on economic, social and political levels, allocation of resources and access to goods and services across social groups is often shaped by social relationships and power relationships, which – in turn – affect the distribution structures themselves (Gacitua-Mario et al 2006). These are not dimensions that can be easily captured by quantitative measures. Donors – including DFID, SIDA, GTZ and the World Bank – have thus turned towards new approaches and methods for conducting social analysis of poverty. The main trends are presented.
Omert, A. Social Exclusion Approaches to Poverty Analysis (GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 833). Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK (2012) 15 pp.