Small Modular Reactors for Meeting the Electricity Needs in Developing Countries
The objective of this paper is to explore the potential for small modular reactor (SMR) deployment in developing countries by identifying the opportunities and challenges for such deployment. The paper starts with examining the energy demand and nuclear power prospects in developing countries followed by the background and history of smaller reactor development worldwide, including their evolution, success stories and previous and ongoing projects for smaller reactor deployment in developing countries (Chapter 2). Chapter 3 presents the design status and deployment prospects for SMRs, including pressurized water reactors, gas cooled reactors, sodium cooled fast reactors and lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. Based on the available references, Chapter 4 brings together the considerations of technology holders regarding SMRs. Chapter 5 reflects upon the known considerations of potential SMR users in developing countries and addresses the issues of proven design and technology; reactor type and plant capacity; plant design, construction, operation and maintenance; decommissioning; economics and financing; nuclear safety and licensing; support from the vendor; local participation and technology transfer; proliferation resistance and physical protection, as well as some very recent developments regarding common user considerations for small and medium sized reactors. Chapter 6 explores the potential for SMR global deployment from different perspectives, including those of economics, investment, national infrastructure for nuclear power and markets. Each of Chapters 2-6 ends with a conclusion summarizing its major findings. Based on major findings and conclusions of Chapters 2-6, Chapter 7 provides a summary of opportunities and challenges for SMR deployment in developing countries, and also highlights pathways for the resolution of the identified challenges and issues. Finally, Chapter 8 provides a concise summary of the principal findings of this paper.
Kessides, I.N.; Kuznetsov, V. Small Modular Reactors for Meeting the Electricity Needs in Developing Countries. World Bank, Washington DC, USA (2012) 97 pp.