Seed stand establishment provides a useful interim measure to obtain seed of improved genetic quality until more intensively selected material is available from seed orchards. In addition increased seed production, improved seed physical quality and greater ease of cone collection provide extra benefits. To realise these benefits detailed procedures for stand selection, mapping, inventory, thinning, isolation, registration and future management are required which are suitable for application in the unmanaged, heterogeneous stands of Pinus oocarpa and P. caribaea typical of many parts of Central America. The results of the CFI international provenance trials of these species provide useful guidelines in assigning priorities in seed stand establishment. Seed stands can play an important role as in situ conservation stands in areas of severe dysgenic exploitation.