The international human rights based commitment to the provision of basic services for all has yet to be realised in practice for a large percentage of the urban poor, especially in relation to access to safe and appropriate sanitation. This research assumed that underlying the reason for this disparity is the lack of clarity on 'who' constitutes the urban poor, what determines 'appropriate sanitation', and how access can be equitable and appropriate in relation to gender.
This report is an outcome of a two-year research study undertaken in India, Bangladesh and Kenya to analyse the above questions. The purpose of this report is to establish broad guidelines as a foundation for effective interventions in sanitation improvements for those living in urban poverty. The report includes chapters on: manual scavengers in Hyderabad, India; urban poor living on the pavements; heterogeneity among poor slum-dwellers; appropriate sanitation - experiences and perceptions of the urban poor; national and agency policies relating to sanitation for the urban poor; agency understanding of gender issues in sanitation; and conclusions.
Southampton, UK; IIDS, 206 pp.