There is a long tradition of Indian farmers purchasing organic urban waste for use as a soil amendment, but there are few documented references to this practice. Research on the sale and use of municipal solid waste in Hubli-Dharwad has identified constraints on the continuing use of such waste, including an increase in the amount of inorganic waste (particularly plastics) and new initiatives in solid waste management. The use of organic urban waste provides an illustration of the urban-rural interactivity that characterises the peri-urban interface, and presents particular challenges to local government and other stakeholders.
Nunan, F. Rural-urban interactions: The purchase of urban waste by farmers in Hubli-Dharwad, India. Third World Planning Review (2001) 23 (4) 387-403.