This paper considers the risk and vulnerability contexts related to subsistence minors. The paper focuses on vulnerability and examines the likelihood of negative consumption volatility as a result of idiosyncratic or common shocks. Sources of shocks are examined in detail, including risks in yield, health, weather, policy and also economic and market risks such as a changes in prices, interest rates and exchange rates. Following from paper one, it suggests that the failure to identify and recognise the ASM sector according to context specific characteristics can lead to an increase in the risks that stem from unfriendly legal and policy frameworks.
Bannock Consulting Ltd. Vulnerability of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining to Commodity Price Fluctuation. PAPER 2: Risk and vulnerability: evidence from the artisanal and small-scale mining sector. (2005) 28 pp.