For many years the design and assessment of structural components and
systems was the focus of most seismic codes worldwide. Although this
focus remains dominant, experience in recent earthquakes has shown that
damage to nonstructural components is also of great concern. A
nonstructural component is any architectural element; mechanical,
electrical, plumbing (MEP) equipment or systems or part thereof; or any
furniture, fixtures, equipment (FF&E) or building contents. This
term is used to describe any and all components of a building structure
which are not an explicit part of the structural system.
Previous studies by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
have shown that nonstructural componentsconstitute a major investment in most buildings; therefore, the failures of these elements may be both dangerous and costly. In fact, the failure
of nonstructural components during seismic events may result in injuries
or fatalities; cause costly damage to buildings and their contents; and
force the closure of residential, medical and manufacturing facilities,
businesses, and government offices until appropriate repairs are
completed. To quantify the potential consequences of earthquake damage
to nonstructural components, 3 types of risk can be typically
- Life Safety: Could anyone be hurt by this component in an
- Property Loss: Could a large property loss result?
- Functional Loss: Could the loss of this component cause an outage
Following the introduction and background,
section 2 of this report considers the key nonstructural components for non-specialist buildings
section 3 looks at the seismic vulnerability of nonstructural components in hospitals;
section 4 discusses retrofitting strategies for nonstructural factors; and
section 5 looks at the prioritisation strategies for retrofitting (benefit-cost analysis and
multi-criteria decision making).
This report has been produced for Evidence on Demand with the assistance
of the UK Department for International Development (DFID).
D;Ayala, D.; Galasso, C.; Minas, S.; Novelli, V. Review of the non-structural considerations for seismically retrofitting hospitals, impact on hospital functionality, and hospital selection. Evidence on Demand, UK (2015) ii + 26 pp. [DOI: 10.12774/eod_hd.june2015.ddayalaetal2]