This chapter offers a review of existing literature aiming to understand and measure the Impact and Effectiveness of Transparency and Accountability Initiatives in the Extractive Industries sector. It uses the term of Natural Resource Governance (NRG) as the set of strategies aimed at improving the transparency and accountability of governments and private companies during the licensing, exploration, contracting, extraction, revenue generation and allocation of natural resources. The full scope of “natural resources” should include oil and gas, minerals and metals, forests, fish, land and water, but in this review, the chosen initiatives have a bias towards the governance of non renewable resources: oil, gas, minerals and metals.
Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton, UK. 18 pp.